Sailfish OS

Appearance move to sidebar hide

Sailfish OS
Sailfish OS version running on Intex Technologies Aqua Fish
Written inQt/QML, C++
OS familyLinux (Unix-like)
Working stateCurrent
Source modelOpen source with added closed-source components and extensions of third parties which can be of other licences as well.
Initial release16 November 2013
Latest release4.6.0.11 (Sauna) / 20 May 2024 (2024-05-20)
Marketing targetMobile and general purpose
Available inEnglish for development, SDK & supporting documentation; over 21 national languages versions of UI in user's device
Package managerRPM Package Manager
Platforms32-bit and 64-bit ARM and 64-bit x86
Kernel typeLinux kernel
LicenseFor end-user the EULA defines used open source and other licences components with a component's origin.
Preceded byMeeGo by alliance of Nokia & Intel
Hackday with Jolla, Mer and Nemo Mobile in September 2012

Sailfish OS is a Linux-based operating system based on free software, and open source projects such as Mer as well as including a closed source UI. The project is being developed by the Finnish company Jolla.

The OS first shipped with the original Jolla Phone in 2013; while its sale stopped in 2016, it was supplied with software updates until the end of 2020. It also shipped with Jolla Tablet in 2015 and from other vendors licensing the OS. The OS is ported by community enthusiasts to third-party mobile devices including smartphones and tablet computers. Sailfish OS can be used for many kinds of devices.

History and development

The OS is an evolved continuation of the Linux MeeGo OS previously developed by alliance of Nokia and Intel which itself relies on combined Maemo and Moblin. The MeeGo legacy is contained in the Mer core in about 80% of its code; the Mer name thus expands to MEego Reconstructed. This base is extended by Jolla with a custom user interface and default applications. Jolla and follow a meritocratic system to avoid the mistakes that led to the MeeGo project's then-unanticipated discontinuation.

The main elements for Sailfish OS 2.0 include:

Software architecture

The Sailfish OS and the Sailfish software development kit (SDK) are based on the Linux kernel and Mer. Sailfish OS includes a multi-tasking graphical shell called "Lipstick" built with Qt by Jolla on top of the Wayland display server protocol. Jolla uses free and open-source graphics device drivers but the Hybris library allows use of proprietary drivers for Android. Jolla fuzzily stated in 2015 that their goal for Sailfish is to become open source eventually, but some key components of Sailfish OS have been licensed proprietary by Jolla from the start and ever since (as of Sailfish OS in September 2023).

Sailfish OS can run some Android applications through a proprietary compatibility layer.

Targeted device classes

Sailfish is targeted at mobile devices. Since it inherited around 80% of MeeGo code, Sailfish can be used as a complete general-purpose Linux OS on devices including in vehicle infotainment (IVI), navigation, smart TV, desktops and notebooks, yachts, automotive, e-commerce, home appliances, measuring and control equipment, smart building equipment, etc. See use cases of original MeeGo to compare, and the Devices section for devices that run the Sailfish OS.

Sailfish OS SDK

The Sailfish OS SDK was announced at the Slush Helsinki conference in 2012, and the alpha was published in February 2013. The SDK, installation and coding tutorials are available for free download from the Sailfish OS website despite the overall license not being open source.

Sailfish SDK uses Qt with VirtualBox for development, compiling and emulation purposes, in contrast to the simulation method. This technique allows compilation on the Sailfish OS and full testing of developed software in the virtual machine, emulating – not simulating – the whole Sailfish OS. This also separates development activities and side effects from everything else running on the host computer, leaving it undisturbed by developments and tests. According to Jolla, development with Sailfish SDK is development on Sailfish OS itself; there are no differences between developed software appearance and behaviour in the SDK and on a device running Sailfish OS.

The availability of source code to the SDK allows shaping and rebuilding to companies' or developers' specific needs, creating a context-specific environment that is set once and needs no preparation when the device is booted. The SDK runs on the operating systems Android, 32- and 64-bit versions of Linux, 64-bit versions of OS X, and Microsoft Windows. It can be used for compiling software for Sailfish OS devices from Linux sources. Its general console/terminal mode follows a commonly used standard. Compatible binaries or libraries can also be used.

Application programming interfaces

Sailfish OS uses open source Qt APIs (Qt 5, QtQuick 2 etc.) and a closed source Sailfish Silica for the UI. Standard Linux APIs are provided by the Mer Core.

Sailfish, Ubuntu and Plasma Active have been cooperating to share common APIs. When successful, this will make the platforms compatible on the API level.

Sailfish Browser is the default web browser based on Gecko and using embedlite (also known as IPCLiteAPI), a lite-weight embedding API from Mozilla.

Software overview

UI supported human languages

Officially Jolla declares supporting the following 14 languages for the user interface: Danish, German, English (UK), Spanish, French, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Finnish, Swedish, Russian, Chinese (mainland), and Chinese (Hong Kong). For each of them, the OS has a dedicated keyboard. There are a few more languages which are unofficially supported by community freelancers not under control by Jolla, hence more than 20 languages are supported in total. Additional languages can be installed by skilled users due to the Linux architecture.

Public "Early access" for beta testers and developers

After positive experiences with pushing early updates to a small group of opt-in users for Sailfish Update 9 and for the connectivity hotfix, Jolla has allowed all interested parties to try a new version of Sailfish OS about 1–2 weeks before official release, in a program called "Early access". It is expected to be useful for developers and technically minded users, and a step towards more community integration into the Sailfish release process, including improvement of quality by identifying critical issues which only show up in certain environments or device setups, before rolling the update out to the wider user audience. As an added bonus, it provides a window for developers to test their applications on new releases of Sailfish OS.

In the long term it will help Jolla to establish a developer program with early release candidate access for registered developers, and to have more community involvement in platform development. The first detail Jolla is hoping to learn from this is how it can gather feedback from a large audience in a reasonable way.

Basic details about the early access update:

Version history

Sailfish OS has three naming conventions: version number, update number and version name.

Software version Initial release date Name
v0.99.5 13 November 2013 Haaganlampi (only for subscribed developers)
v0.99.6 11 November 2013 Idörpottarna (only for subscribed developers)
v1.0.0 16 November 2013 Kaajanlampi (initial public release)
v1.0.1 2 December 2013 Laadunjärvi ("Update 1")
v1.0.2 27 December 2013 Maadajärvi ("Update 2")
v1.0.3 27 January 2014 Naamankajärvi ("Update 3")
v1.0.4 11 March 2014 Ohijärvi ("Update 4")
v1.0.5 7 April 2014 Paarlampi ("Update 5")
v1.0.6 Not released Raatejärvi ("Update 6"), was merged into v1.0.7
v1.0.7 3 June 2014 Saapunki ("Update 7")
v1.0.8 3 July 2014 Tahkalampi ("Update 8")
v1.1.0 16 September 2014 Uitukka ("Update 9"), was labelled as "opt-in upgrade"
v1.1.1 14 December 2014 Vaarainjärvi ("Update 10")
v1.1.2 1 February 2015 Yliaavanlampi ("Update 11")
v1.1.3 Not released Åkanttrasket ("Update 12"), was merged into v1.1.4
v1.1.4 24 March 2015 Äijänpäivänjärvi ("Update 13")
v1.1.5 Not released Österviken ("Update 14"), was dropped at release candidate stage
v1.1.6 27 May 2015 Aaslakkajärvi ("Update 15")
v1.1.7 24 June 2015 Björnträsket ("Update 16")
v1.1.9 18 August 2015 Eineheminlampi ("Update 17")
v2.0.0 19 October 2015 Saimaa ("Update 18")
v2.0.1 12 January 2016 Taalojärvi ("Update 19")
v2.0.2 13 May 2016 Aurajoki ("Update 20")
v2.0.3 6 July 2016 Espoonjoki ("Update 21"), OS version solely for the Turing Phone
v2.0.4 4 November 2016 Fiskarsinjoki ("Update 22")
v2.0.5 14 December 2016 Haapajoki ("Update 23")
v2.1.0 3 February 2017 Iijoki ("Update 24")
v2.1.1 15 May 2017 Jämsänjoki
v2.1.2 20 September 2017 Kiiminkijoki
v2.1.3 6 October 2017 Kymijoki
v2.1.4 12 February 2018 Lapuanjoki
v2.2.0 30 May 2018 Mouhijoki
v2.2.1 31 August 2018 Nurmonjoki
v3.0.0 29 October 2018 Lemmenjoki
v3.0.1 2 January 2019 Sipoonkorpi
v3.0.2 13 March 2019 Oulanka
v3.0.3 23 April 2019 Hossa
v3.1.0 15 July 2019 Seitseminen
v3.2.0 24 October 2019 Torronsuo
v3.2.1 5 December 2019 Nuuksio
v3.3.0 1 April 2020 Rokua
v3.4.0 22 September 2020 Pallas-Yllästunturi (the final release for the Jolla Phone)
v4.0.1 3 February 2021 Koli
v4.1.0 10 May 2021 Kvarken
v4.2.0 25 August 2021 Verla
v4.3.0 28 October 2021 Suomenlinna
v4.4.0 15 March 2022 Vanha Rauma
v4.5.0 2 February 2023 Struven Ketju
v4.6.0 20 May 2024 Sauna

When updating an installed Sailfish OS from an earlier release, for example after device factory reset, there are several stop releases which must not be skipped and have to be installed before continuing on the path to subsequent releases. These releases provide new functionality that is not compatible with previous releases and have to be traversed in order not to put the Sailfish OS installation into an unstable state.

Software version Release date Name
v1.0.2.5 27 December 2013 Maadajärvi
v1.1.2.16 25 February 2015 Yliaavanlampi
v1.1.7.28 31 August 2015 Björnträsket
v1.1.9.30 22 October 2015 Eineheminlampi
v2.0.0.10 3 November 2015 Saimaa
v2.0.5.6 22 November 2016 Haapajoki (only a stop release for some devices, e.g., the Jolla C / Intex Aquafish)
v2.2.0.29 7 June 2018 Mouhijoki
v3.0.0.8 11 November 2018 Lemmenjoki
v3.2.0.12 5 November 2019 Torronsuo
v3.4.0.24 13 October 2020 Pallas-Yllästunturi
v4.0.1.48 16 February 2021 Koli
v4.1.0.24 27 May 2021 Kvarken
v4.2.0.21 16 September 2021 Verla
v4.3.0.15 16 February 2022 Suomenlinna
v4.4.0.72 30 September 2022 Vanha Rauma
v4.5.0.24 12 September 2023 Struven Ketju


The Sailfish website publishes an online compendium of knowledge, links and instructions on porting issues.

Using Android software running on Sailfish OS

In addition to its native applications, Sailfish can run some Android applications by installing them from an application store or directly through an APK file. Supported Android versions are 4.1.2 "Jelly Bean" on the original Jolla phone; 4.4.4 "Kit-Kat" on the Jolla C, Jolla tablet and Xperia X; 8.1.0 "Oreo", 9 "Pie" and 10 (depending on the Sailfish OS release) on Xperia XA2, Xperia 10 and Xperia 10 II. Problems can arise if these applications were built without following Android standards about controls, which might not display correctly and so become unusable.

Sailfish OS uses Alien Dalvik, a proprietary Android compatibility layer. It does not emulate Android, but instead implements its APIs by adapting the Android Open Source Project (AOSP) code to run as an application. Android applications can thus run at native speed without any perceivable slow-down. Sailfish can run both native Sailfish and Android software simultaneously, with the user switching between them on the fly.

Starting with Alien Dalvik 8.1 (also called "Android App Support" since then), it uses LXC to improve security by better isolation, in the same way the open source Android compatibility layer Anbox is doing.

Hardware overview

Advantages of the Mer standard

Sailfish OS can be used on any hardware with Linux-kernel support and compatible with the middleware utilising the Mer core. Community enthusiasts have ported Sailfish OS to a number of devices this way. Instead of designation to a specific reference hardware platform, a VirtualBox implementation with the Sailfish SDK is available for development on Linux, OS X and Windows operating systems. This virtual machine implementation contains the whole Sailfish OS isolated from local resources and the local OS to enable convenient evaluation of the behaviour and performance of coded or ported software before deployment on real devices.

Jolla devices

Devices from other vendors licensing Sailfish OS

Manufacturers can provide mobile equipment with a licensed Sailfish OS, or as open source, or combining both and including their own or the operator's modifications and branding for specific markets or purposes.

Community enthusiasts' ports to devices from other vendors

Due to the relative ease of porting and the open source license, Sailfish OS has also been unofficially ported to other 3rd-party devices. The Hardware Adaptation Development Kit for porters has been published and is free. These ports are mostly published on the Maemo and XDA Developers forums, and in the Mer wiki a list of the ports is compiled. Due to license restrictions, proprietary parts or extensions such as the Alien Dalvik compatibility layer for Android apps are not included. However they can be added, e.g. when a manufacturer or distributor turns it from the community version into an officially supported version for a particular device. From the originally more than 80 ports, there are about 19 ports that are still in active development – as of March 2019 – meaning they have been updated to Sailfish 3:

To display the ease of porting Sailfish OS to other devices, Jolla showed created ports and community ports at events like the Mobile World Congress, Slush and FOSDEM:

OS development status

Sailfish OS is promoted by Jolla and supported by the open Sailfish Alliance established in 2011, a group established to unite OEM and ODM manufacturers, chipset providers, operators, application developers and retailers. On 16 August 2012, the user interface was reported to be ready for release. Jolla's CEO Jussi Hurmola stated in a ZDNet interview, " ... Our UI is ready now, we haven't released it yet, we will save it for the product launch and the platform is getting up now so the project looks pretty nice".

The next day, Jolla's CEO Marc Dillon said on social networking website Twitter that the company had reached the first development target. Sailfish was debuted by the Jolla team, including a worldwide internet stream, as a demo of the OS, and the UI and SDK during the Slush event in Helsinki, Finland, on 21–22 November 2012. The alpha stage of Sailfish OS SDK was published at the end of February 2013 and was made available for free download.

On 16 September 2013, Jolla announced that its OS had been made compatible with Android applications and hardware. The first telephone to use it was launched on 27 November 2013 at a pop-up DNA Kauppa shop in Helsinki. The first 450 telephones were sold at this event, while the rest of the preordered devices were shipped shortly after.

In August 2015, version 1.1.9 "Eineheminlampi" was released, which added the main elements of the revamped Sailfish OS 2.0 user interface.

Sailfish OS 2.0.0 was launched with the Jolla Tablet, and existing devices, both smartphones and tablets, from Jolla's official distribution channels are supported with upgrade to Sailfish OS 2.0.0 and following updates.

In May 2016 Jolla announced the Sailfish Community Device Program, supporting developers and members of Sailfish OS community.

Aurora OS

Jolla staff met with members of the Russian technology community to break ground on the new software and promote Sailfish OS, as part of Jolla's BRICS strategy. As a result of those efforts, on 18 May 2015 the Russian minister of communications Nikolai Nikiforov announced plans to replace Apple's iOS and Google's Android platforms with new software based on Sailfish. He intends it to cover 50% of Russian needs in this area during next ten years, in comparison to the 95% currently covered with western technology. The Russian version is currently being developed under the brand name Mobile OS "Aurora" (мобильная ОС «Аврора»), before 2019 as "Sailfish Mobile OS RUS". The Chinese multinational technology company Huawei was in talks with the Russian Ministry of Communications to install Aurora OS on tablets for Russia’s population census by August 2020. Jolla has cut business ties with Russia in 2021.

Sailfish Alliance

Sailfish Alliance is the open alliance established in 2011 by Jolla company to support the MeeGo ecosystem with new products, services and business opportunities around or using Sailfish OS, a Linux operating system combining Mer with proprietary components from Jolla and other parties, for various purposes and mobile devices.

The alliance is seen as a competitor to other groups like Android's Open Handset Alliance.

In 2011 some of the MeeGo team working at Nokia left, and were funded by Nokia though their "Bridge" program to fund spin-out projects by ex-employees. The Sailfish Alliance has sought to collaborate between the Finnish software developers, and overseas handset manufacturers, some of which are in China. The news media reports that a number of manufacturers in China and India want an alternative to Android.

The Alliance aims to "unite OEM and ODM manufacturers, chipset providers, operators, application developers and retailers."

Business strategy

The aim of the Alliance is to offer unique differentiation opportunities and sustainable competitive advantage for OEM and ODM manufacturers, chipset providers, operators, application developers, retailers and other interested in sides.

Sailfish Secure

The Sailfish Secure is an open and secure mobile phone platform, based on Sailfish OS. It was introduced publicly in Barcelona, Spain at Mobile World Congress on 2 March 2015 where plans for the Sailfish Secure were presented.

It is based on a security-hardened version of the Sailfish OS and SSH's communication encryption and key management platform. Developed by Jolla (the Sailfish OS designer and developer) together with SSH Communications Security (the inventor of Secure Shell SSH protocol) in collaboration of Sailfish Alliance.

The hardware platform independent approach of the Sailfish Secure allow concept adaptation to local needs, and also in collaboration with other security partners. End customers like governments or large corporations are able to adapt the solution to their preferred or used hardware platform, as it is not tied to a specific hardware or configuration.

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Sailfish End User License Agreement". Jolla. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  2. ^ a b c "Jolla Open Source statement 2015". Jolla. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015.
  3. ^ "Sailversion". CodeRUS. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  4. ^ "Packaging Applications for Distribution". Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  5. ^ "Jolla Tablet: Aiming for Closure". Official Jolla Blog. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
  6. ^ "Jolla signs up India's Intex as first Sailfish OS licensee". PCWorld. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  7. ^ "Sailfish OS on Fairphone 2 – a community driven project". 31 January 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
  8. ^ "Adaptations/libhybris". mer project wiki. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
  9. ^ "".
  10. ^ "What is Sailfish OS? 5 Things to Know". 20 May 2013.
  11. ^ "". Archived from the original on 2 October 2013.
  12. ^ Holwerda, Thom (30 January 2014). "From Providence to Lahaina: the Jolla review". Retrieved 21 April 2014.
  13. ^ "Jolla Brings Wayland Atop Android GPU Drivers".
  14. ^ "". Archived from the original on 2 November 2013.
  15. ^ "SailfishOS License Information". MERproject. 20 January 2016.
  16. ^ "Jolla OS Will Run Android Apps Says CEO Jussi Hurmola". 20 August 2012. Archived from the original on 25 August 2012.
  17. ^ "Sailfish OS SDK Alpha released". Tizen Experts. 25 February 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  18. ^ "Developer FAQ". Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  19. ^ "SDK Installation". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  20. ^ "Software Development Kit". Sailfish OS. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  21. ^ " QML component APIs and techniques". Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  22. ^ "Sailfish Browser". GitHub. 21 March 2022.
  23. ^ "Language Settings". Jolla com. Jolla ltd. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  24. ^ Wachter, Bernd (Aard). " Early access to SailfishOS releases ". Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  25. ^ Suomalainen, Aleksi (28 November 2013). "Jolla system updates will be named after a Finnish lake". The Jolla Blog. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  26. ^ "release notes 2.0.2/Aurajoki". 28 July 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  27. ^ "Sailfish 3 is here!". 31 October 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
  28. ^ "Sailfish OS Verla introduces a new sharing system, camera updates, and more". Jolla Blog. 16 September 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  29. ^ "Sailfish OS release notes up to v3.3.0". Jolla Oy. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  30. ^ "Sailfish OS release notes since v3.4.0". Jolla Oy. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  31. ^ "Sailversion". CodeRUS. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  32. ^ "History of Sailfish OS 1.0 by Jolla". Review Jolla. 10 August 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  33. ^ Last version to support the original Jolla Phone release notes for version 4.0.1 on 2021-04-21: Support for the Jolla 1 phone ended with version 3.4.0
  34. ^ " Vanha Rauma 4.4.0". 11 March 2022.
  35. ^ " Sauna". Sailfish OS Forum. 20 May 2024. Retrieved 23 May 2024.
  36. ^ "Sailfish OS stop releases". The Stop Releases (so far). Jolla Oy. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  37. ^ " Vanha Rauma". 29 September 2022.
  38. ^ " Vanha Rauma". 12 September 2023.
  39. ^ "Porting/Hartmattan – SailfishOS". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  40. ^ "What Android apps does Sailfish OS support and how do I get them?".
  41. ^ McAllister, Neil (15 November 2013). "Jolla's Android-aping Sailfish OS smartphones to land in November". The Register. Situation Publishing. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  42. ^ " Sailfish X Beta (".
  43. ^ "Adaptations/libhybris – Mer Wiki".
  44. ^ "Tools". Sailfish OS Documentation. Retrieved 16 June 2022.
  45. ^ "Installation". Sailfish OS Documentation. Retrieved 16 June 2022.
  46. ^ "Jolla shop". Retrieved 22 May 2024.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Sailfish X: For Which Device Models is it Available?". Jolla Oy. 1 June 2022. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  48. ^ "Devices". Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  49. ^ "Hardware Adaptation Development Kit". Hardware Adaptation Development Kit. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  50. ^ community, Sledge. "Adaptations/libhybris". Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  51. ^ "Install SailfishOS for idol3". Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  52. ^ "Install SailfishOS for fp2". Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  53. ^ @chenliangchen (6 April 2019). "A short tour of #SailfishOS on @thefxtec Pro1. Despite early adaptation stage UI is already pretty smooth" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  54. ^ @adampigg (27 June 2019). "Working with @Mister1Magister and @NotTheKit to bring up #sailfishos on the @thefxtec Pro1 :) (ignore the huge icons for now!) @chenliangchen" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  55. ^ @Mister1Magister (26 June 2019). "Hold my beer #Jolla #SailfishOS @JollaHQ @thefxtec" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  56. ^ "Sailfish OS for Moto Z Play". Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  57. ^ "Install SailfishOS for onyx". Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  58. ^ "Bacon Info". Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  59. ^ a b "Install SailfishOS for cheeseburger/dumpling". Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  60. ^ "sailfishos releases for galaxy a5". Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  61. ^ "Patcher script that applies the f5321 (Xperia X Compact) compatibility layer on top of official Sailfish X f5121 images". Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  62. ^ " home".
  63. ^ "Install SailfishOS for kenzo". Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  64. ^ "Install SailfishOS for mido". Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  65. ^ "Install SailfishOS for Vince". Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  66. ^ "SailfishOS for Redmi 4X". SourceForge. 9 April 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  67. ^ "Jolla Sailfish OS: Software Tour". 27 February 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  68. ^ "Sailfish OS su Nexus 7". 10 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  69. ^ "Sailfish OS Running On Nexus 4". 4 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  70. ^ a b "Sailfish OS su Nexus 4, Samsung Galaxy S3 e Xiaomi Mi2". 26 February 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  71. ^ "Photos and videos, Jolla Phone at MWC2014, day1". 24 February 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  72. ^ "Sailfish OS 2.0 on LG Google Nexus 5". 9 March 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  73. ^ "Hands On: Sailfish 2.0 on the Fairphone 2". 24 February 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  74. ^ a b "Jolla at MWC 2017: wrap up". 21 March 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  75. ^ a b c "Sailfish OS at MWC 2018: A Wrap-up!". 28 March 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  76. ^ "A call to port Sailfish OS on the "pseudo 3310"". 3 September 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  77. ^ "Jolla". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  78. ^ Tung, Liam. "Jolla's MeeGo UI is ready to go – and it's on the hunt for mobile talent". 2012 CBS Interactive. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  79. ^ Bhushan, Amarendra (16 September 2013). "Jolla Sailfish OS Now Supports Android Hardware And Applications". CEOWORLD Magazine. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  80. ^ "First Jolla Phone with Sailfish OS to launch on 27 November". Archived from the original on 5 January 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  81. ^ "Jolla looks to boost ecosystem with developer initiative – Mobile World Live". 30 May 2016.
  82. ^ Carrillo, Gabriel. "Russia Launches Its Own Phone Operating System". Phone Tips. Gabriel Carrillo. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  83. ^ Price, Rob (19 May 2015). "The Russian government is launching its own mobile operating system to take on Apple and Google". Business Insider. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  84. ^ "Aurora OS". OMP. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  85. ^ Russian mobile operating system begins a new stage of development under the brand name 'Avrora'. Rostelekom, 7 Feb. 2019 (in Russ.).
  86. ^ "Rostelecom rebrands local Sailfish OS as Aurora". Telecompaper. 13 February 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  87. ^ "Huawei in talks to install Russian operating system on tablets for country's population census". 26 August 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  88. ^ "SailfishOS Forum".
  89. ^ a b "Jolla signs first Sailfish Alliance partner, as it seeks device OEMs". FierceWirelessEurope.
  90. ^ "Many former Nokia employees start businesses of their own", Helsingin Sanomat
  91. ^ Lunden, Ingrid (10 July 2012). "Nokia Bridge: Nokia's Incubator Gives Departing Employees €25k And More To Pursue Ideas That Nokia Has Not". Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  92. ^ Tung, Liam. "Inside Nokia Bridge: How Nokia funds ex-employees' new start-ups". 2013 CBS Interactive. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  93. ^ David Meyer (2 October 2012). "Gigaom Jolla's MeeGo revival plans shape up with $260m ecosystem alliance". Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  94. ^ Liam Tung. "Jolla: All eyes are on the hardware — but what about the ecosystem?". ZDNet.
  95. ^ Liam Tung. "Jolla gives first look at Sailfish OS as it plans assault on Google, Apple app stores". ZDNet.
  96. ^ Akolawala, Tasneem (4 March 2015). "Jolla, Snapdeal form alliance to promote Sailfish OS among Indian smartphone manufacturers". BGR India. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  97. ^ "Jolla's Sailfish OS promises multitasking, personalization and 'effortless interaction'". 21 November 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  98. ^ community. "Sailfish Alliance". Sailfish OS Wiki. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  99. ^ Rockman, Simon. "Jolla launches Sailfish 2.0, now with added security".
  100. ^ "Jolla and SSH push Sailfish Secure as "European alternative" mobile OS". 2016 Knowingly, Inc. 2 March 2015. Archived from the original on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.

External links