Alipay

Appearance move to sidebar hide

Alipay
Native name支付宝
Romanized nameZhīfùbǎo
IndustryFinancial services
Payment processor
FoundedFebruary 2004 (2004-02) in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
FounderJack Ma
HeadquartersPudong, Shanghai, China
Area servedWorldwide
ProductsElectronic payment processing
Banking
Mobile payment
ParentAnt Financial
Websitewww.alipay.com
Alipay
Traditional Chinese支付寶
Simplified Chinese支付宝

Alipay (simplified Chinese: 支付宝; traditional Chinese: 支付寶; pinyin: zhīfùbǎo) is a third-party mobile and online payment platform, established in Hangzhou, China in February 2004 by Alibaba Group and its founder Jack Ma. In 2015, Alipay moved its headquarters to Pudong, Shanghai, although its parent company Ant Financial remains Hangzhou-based.

Alipay overtook PayPal as the world's largest mobile (digital) payment platform in 2013. As of June 2020, Alipay serves over 1.3 billion users and 80 million merchants. According to the statistics of the fourth quarter of 2018, Alipay has a 55.32% share of the third-party payment market in mainland China, and it continues to grow.

Along with WeChat, Alipay has been described to be China's super-app with a wide range of functionalities including ridesharing, travel booking and medical appointments.

History

The service was first launched in 2003, by Taobao. The People's Bank of China, China's central bank, issued licensing regulations in June 2010 for third-party payment providers. It also issued separate guidelines for foreign-funded payment institutions. Because of this, Alipay, which accounted for half of China's non-bank online payment market, was restructured as a domestic company controlled by Alibaba CEO Jack Ma in order to facilitate the regulatory approval for the license. The 2010 transfer of Alipay's ownership was controversial, with media reports in 2011 that Yahoo! and Softbank (Alibaba Group's controlling shareholders) were not informed of the sale for nominal value. Chinese business publication Century Weekly criticised Ma, who stated that Alibaba Group's board of directors was aware of the transaction. The incident was criticised in foreign and Chinese media as harming foreign trust in making Chinese investments. The ownership dispute was resolved by Alibaba Group, Yahoo!, and Softbank in July 2011.

In 2013 Alipay launched a financial product platform called Yu'e Bao (余额宝). Alipay partnered with Tianhong Asset Management to launch the it. Yu'e Bao offers an online money market account in which Alipay customers can deposit money and receive a higher interest rate than that available from banks.: 33  It soon became China's largest online money market fund and prompted competitors like Baidu and Tencent to introduce alternatives.: 33  Alibaba (the parent company of Alipay) reported having 152 million Yu'e Bao users in mid-2016, with 810 billion RMB (US$117 billion) in funds under management.

In 2015, Alipay's parent company was re-branded as Ant Financial Services Group.

In 2017, Alipay unveiled their facial recognition payment service.

In 2020, Alipay upgraded from a payment financial instrument to an open platform for digital life.

In 2021, the mandate by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) to open up the "walled garden" ecosystems of the major tech companies has led to the introduction of interoperability of payment QR codes of Alipay and competing WeChat Pay and UnionPay's Cloud QuickPass platforms.

Services

Food ordering with Alipay in Mainland China

Alipay states that it operates with more than 65 financial institutions including Visa and MasterCard to provide payment services for Taobao and Tmall as well as more than 460,000 online and local Chinese businesses.

Alipay is used in smartphones with their Alipay Wallet app. QR code payment codes are used for local in-store payments. The Alipay app also provides features such as credit card bill payments, bank account managements, P2P transfer, prepay mobile phone top-up, bus and train ticket purchases, food orders, vehicles for hire, insurance selections and a digital identification document storage. Alipay also allows online check-out on most Chinese-based websites such as Taobao and Tmall.

The Alipay app allows users to add their own services provided from different companies to create a more personalised experience.

Since late-2008, Alipay has promoted public service payment services and has covered more than 300 cities nationwide, supporting more than 1,200 partner organizations. In addition to utility bills such as water and electricity, Alipay also extends their services to areas such as paying transportation fines, property fees, and cable television fees. Common online payment services also include hydropower coal payment, tuition payment and traffic fine.

On 15 January 2009, Alipay launched a credit card repayment service, supporting 39 domestic bank-issued credit cards. It is currently the most popular third-party repayment platform. The main advantages are free credit card bills checking, repayments with no administrative fee, as well as automatic repayment, repayment reminders and other value-added services. In the first quarter of 2014, 76% of credit cards were also paid by Alipay Wallet.

From December 2013, several chain convenience store companies, including Meiyijia, Hongqi Chain, and Qishiduo C-STORE and 7-Eleven, have successively supported Alipay payment; in December, Beijing taxi drivers began to accept Alipay to pay the fare. Subsequently, Wanda Cinema, Joy City, Wangfujing and other large-scale retail companies as well as movie theaters, KTV, and catering companies have access to Alipay.

From March 26, 2019, the service fee will be charged for the payment of credit card through Alipay. Customers only pay the portion of the payment that exceeds 2,000 yuan at 0.1%.

In November 2019, Alipay introduced Tourpass, a service component that allows non-Chinese users to use its mobile payment feature by pre-loading Chinese Yuan equivalent foreign currency into the app.

In 2020, Alipay used a QR code system to help in containing the COVID-19 outbreak. The health code system tags users one of three colors according to their location, basic health information and travel history.

"Beauty filters" were included to Alipay's face-scan payment system in a new upgrade that was released in July 2019. The market has responded well to the "beauty filters," which make users seem better when they use the program to make payments.

Foreign expansion

Outside of China, more than 300 worldwide merchants use Alipay to sell directly to consumers in China. It currently supports transactions in 18 foreign currencies.

Since the launch of Alipay in the Mainland China, Ant Financial introduced a series of expansion of the services to other countries. Other than expanding into individual countries, the system would also be integrated with online payment platform providers. Ant Group had acquired a majority stake into 2C2P, a Singapore-based provider used by merchants worldwide in April 2022, and would eventually integrate Alipay with 2C2P.

Asia

Bangladesh

In 2018, Alipay bought 20% shares in Bangladeshi mobile financial service provider bKash Limited.

Hong Kong

In 2017, Ant Financial expanded to Hong Kong. In a joint venture with CK Hutchison, as Alipay Payment Services (HK), it launched the "AlipayHK" brand. A standalone app provides features such as mobile payments and P2P transfers. All transactions are made and settled in local Hong Kong dollars. The service then became available in major chain stores including McDonald's, 7-Eleven and Circle K. Wet markets and other merchants were also supported. From 2020 and 2021, with AlipayHK passing two million users, the service became accepted on MTR, buses and ferries.

Japan

Alipay entered Japan in 2015, with network up to 38,000. Ant Financial hopes that their network in Japan could help Chinese tourists that are heading to Japan.

Philippines

Alipay was introduced to the Philippines in 2018 by Asia United Bank (AUB). AUB also introduced WeChat Pay, and intends to use both payment systems to cater to Chinese tourists visiting the country.

Ant Financial also has invested on Mynt, the operator of the mobile service GCash which caters to the Philippine market. It helped convert GCash into a cashless mobile payment service similar to Alipay.

Singapore

In 2017, Ant Financial partnered with CC Financial, a start-up company in Singapore. Alipay plans to expand its 20,000 acceptance points in Singapore, and open up their platform to Singapore banking users.

South Korea

Alipay was introduced in South Korea in 2015, and is now available at various merchants around the country. Users can even receive an instant tax refund at four major airports in the country. In 2019, taxis in Seoul and Starbucks will accept Alipay via Kakaopay.

Vietnam

Alipay entered Vietnam in 2010, with its network up to 21,000. Ant Financial hopes that their network in Vietnam could assist Chinese tourists visiting the country. Currently in Vietnam, Davitrans, a proxy shipping service, is the only website in the country that accepts Alipay as one of its payment methods.

Oceania

Australia

In February 2019, Alipay and Tourism Australia announced a service to promote Australian destinations to Chinese tourists using the city of Sydney as a 12-month pilot project. The new Sydney City Card will introduce an interactive city map in the Alipay app to alert tourists to participating locations and retailers that welcome Alipay payments. A similar initiative will be trialed concurrently in Queenstown, New Zealand.

North America

United States

Ant Financial has partnered with First Data in 2017. It allows Alipay service to be used at point-of-sale with more than four million retail partners in United States.

Canada

In 2017, Alipay partnered with SnapPay to allow Canadian retailers to accept Chinese currency from Chinese shoppers. There are currently 800 merchants in Canada that supports Alipay, including most Cadillac Fairview mall locations in partnership with OTT Pay, such as the flagship Eaton Center of Toronto and CF Chinook Centre in Calgary. Air Canada began allowing transactions in Alipay to book flights from Canada and the United States beginning in August 2018, after initially rolling out the feature for booking of flights originating from China.

Europe

France

Alipay partners with Silkpay to enable merchants in France and other European countries to accept Alipay payments online and in-store.

Iceland

Alipay has partnered with Splitit and ePassi in Iceland.

Italy

Alipay partnered with UniCredit, SIA and Banca Sella Group to enable app payments in physical and online stores in Italy.

Norway

Alipay has started cooperating with Vipps in Norway. 30 shops in Bergen are ready to receive Alipay-customers, and in January 2019 some shops in Oslo will be ready.

Russia

Alipay proposed a partnership with Sberbank to provide immediate money transfers by cellphone number between Russia and China by 2022: the proposal pre-dates the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, which resulted in Visa and Mastercard suspending operations in the Russia.

United Kingdom

Alipay partnered with Barclaycard in United Kingdom, bringing Alipay to UK retailers.

Comparison with other payment systems

Alipay is conceptually similar to Apple Pay, WeChat Pay and PayPal because it overlays traditional card payment methods. Although users receive immediate notification of the transaction, the main difference among Alipay and an instant payment system, like Venmo or Zelle is that the funds transfer between counterparties is not immediate. The settlement time depends on the payment method chosen by the customer, while for instant payment systems, the funds are transferred within seconds or minutes.

Regulatory history

Prior to Alipay, third-party payment was a legal grey area in China.: 32  As Alipay's popularity increased, it became accepted by Chinese regulators.: 32–33  In 2010, the People's Bank of China (PBoC) issued administrative measures regarding non-financial payment services.: 33  These measures retroactively recognized the legal status of online third-party payment platforms like Alipay.: 33  In 2011, Alipay obtained a license to become one of the first licensed non-financial institutions to conduct payment operations.: 33 

The PBoC supported the growth of Yu'e Bao and similar funds with a permissive regulatory environment initially but began increasing regulation of such funds in 2017.: 33 

In September 2021, the Chinese government stated its intent to dismantle the Alipay super app into separate businesses due to concerns over "systemic financial risks" as Chinese e-commerce and fintech firms had begun to amass huge troves of user data for their operations. The move essentially split Ant Group's consumer lending businesses, credit card-like Huabei and micro-loan provider Jiebei, from Alipay's financial offerings.

In November 2021, Alipay introduced a new privacy protection feature amid growing concerns over data privacy and after China's Personal Information Protection Law (PIPL) came into effect on 1 November 2021. The PIPL prohibits the unnecessary collection of personal information, abuse of personal privacy, and data exchanges with overseas entities. Alipay's new feature allows users to track how the app collects data about them and is an interactive equivalent to a privacy policy, which explains how an app collects, stores, and shares user data.

Alipay was banned in India (along with other Chinese apps) on 2 September 2020 by the government amid the 2020 China-India skirmish.

See also

References

  1. ^ "支付宝总部迁址上海陆家嘴". Netease. 23 April 2015. Archived from the original on 28 September 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  2. ^ Shi, Song (2023). China and the Internet: Using New Media for Development and Social Change. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. p. 150. ISBN 9781978834736.
  3. ^ "Ant Group" (PDF). Hong Kong Exchange News. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  4. ^ "8.7亿!支付宝首次公布用户量: 全球第一". 快科技 (in Chinese (China)). 4 May 2018. Archived from the original on 4 October 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  5. ^ "8.7亿!支付宝首次公布全球活跃用户数量". 新浪财经. 4 May 2018. Archived from the original on 4 October 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  6. ^ "Alipay is world's second largest mobile wallet". Computer World HK. 9 April 2018. Archived from the original on 6 October 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  7. ^ Bhattacharya, Ananya (9 May 2023). "WeChat is the world's biggest superapp, but it's not the only one". Archived from the original on 8 June 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
  8. ^ Fischer, Matthias. Fintech Business Models: Applied Canvas Method and Analysis of Venture Capital Rounds, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2021, pp. 24-25. doi:10.1515/9783110704907-020
  9. ^ O'Connell, Brian (2 January 2020). "History of Alibaba: Timeline and Facts". TheStreet. Archived from the original on 1 November 2022. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  10. ^ "How Taobao bested Ebay in China". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 25 July 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  11. ^ King, Brett. "Banks Aren't Innovative in 2020". www.bbntimes.com. Archived from the original on 20 May 2020. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  12. ^ Wang, Shanshan (27 May 2011). "Alipay Awarded Third-Party Payment License". Caixin Online. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  13. ^ "How Jack Ma's Mistake Damaged China's Market". Caixin Online. 14 June 2011. Archived from the original on 8 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  14. ^ "Jack Ma Talks To China Entrepreneur Magazine About The Alipay Case (UPDATED)". DigiCha. 6 July 2011. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
  15. ^ Rusli, Evelyn M. (29 July 2011). "Yahoo and Alibaba Resolve Dispute Over Alipay". DealBook. Archived from the original on 29 July 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  16. ^ a b Chohan, Usman W. "Financial Innovation in China: Alibaba's Leftover Treasure - 余额宝". McGill University. Archived from the original on 24 January 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Zhang, Angela Huyue (2024). High Wire: How China Regulates Big Tech and Governs Its Economy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780197682258.
  18. ^ McDonald, Tom; Guo, Yanan (April 2021). "'What would happen if you can't see your money?': Visibility and the emergent infrastructures of digital money storage in China". New Media & Society. 23 (4): 715–731. doi:10.1177/1461444820954198. ISSN 1461-4448. S2CID 222337469. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  19. ^ Shih, Gerry (16 October 2014). "Alibaba affiliate Alipay rebranded Ant in new financial services push". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  20. ^ Russell, Jon. "Alibaba debuts 'smile to pay' facial recognition payments at KFC in China | TechCrunch". Archived from the original on 1 November 2022. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  21. ^ Hua, Xin (13 March 2020). "Alipay aids China's service industry in going digital". Archived from the original on 1 November 2022. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  22. ^ Zhang, Jane (4 October 2021). "Ant Group, Tencent further open up their mobile payment ecosystems to state-owned UnionPay". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  23. ^ "About Alipay". Alipay. Archived from the original on 2 August 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
  24. ^ Cheng, Evelyn (8 October 2017). "Cash is already pretty much dead in China as the country lives the future with mobile pay". CNBC. Archived from the original on 28 July 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  25. ^ "Alipay adds digital storage feature for identification documents". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 12 February 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  26. ^ "Online payment services in China: How does Alipay differ from PayPal?". Nanjing Marketing Group. 19 December 2013. Archived from the original on 12 February 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  27. ^ "支付宝开放平台". open.alipay.com. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  28. ^ 戴甜. "'Credit cities' taking shape in China". Chinadaily. Archived from the original on 1 November 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  29. ^ Liu, Charlie (1 March 2017). "Everything You Need to Know about Alipay and WeChat Pay". Medium. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  30. ^ "支付宝网站首页 品牌介绍及官网". www.ew35.com (in Chinese (China)). Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  31. ^ Hsu, Sara. "This Chinese Credit Card Company Plans On Outsmarting Tencent And Alipay With A More Secure Product". Forbes. Archived from the original on 1 November 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  32. ^ "Yes, Foreigners Can Use AliPay -- This Is How". Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  33. ^ Xie, Stella Yifan (21 February 2019). "Ant Financial's Alipay to Impose Fees on Some Users as Costs Mount". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 22 June 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  34. ^ "外国人如何在上海生存指南 - 支付宝tourpass!". www.dealmoon.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  35. ^ Li, John Detrixhe, Jane (5 November 2019). "Travelers to China can finally experience its cashless economy like a local". Quartz. Archived from the original on 1 November 2022. Retrieved 17 November 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  36. ^ "People in China need a green light from Alipay app to move around". The Japan Times. 24 March 2020. ISSN 0447-5763. Archived from the original on 1 November 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  37. ^ Peng, Altman Yuzhu (18 May 2020). "Alipay adds "beauty filters" to face-scan payments: a form of patriarchal control over women's bodies". Feminist Media Studies. 20 (4): 582–585. doi:10.1080/14680777.2020.1750779. ISSN 1468-0777. S2CID 221064450.
  38. ^ "支付宝国际版赋能跨境电商, 助力亚太市场开拓再提速". Shopify (in Chinese (China)). 29 September 2021. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  39. ^ "China's Alipay Is Moving Aggressively Into Foreign Markets - eMarketer". www.emarketer.com. Archived from the original on 19 April 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  40. ^ "Alipay Continues Its Global Expansion Efforts | PYMNTS.com". www.pymnts.com. 4 September 2017. Archived from the original on 5 September 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  41. ^ "Alipay takes on Apple and PayPal with US expansion". The Verge. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  42. ^ Huang, Echo. "China's Alipay will soon be about as widely accepted as Apple Pay in the US". Quartz. Archived from the original on 12 February 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  43. ^ "China's Ant Group to take up majority ownership of payments platform 2C2P". Reuters. 18 April 2022. Archived from the original on 28 April 2022. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  44. ^ "Alipay parent firm steps into Bangladesh". The Independent. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  45. ^ "China's Ant brings in CK Hutchison as Hong Kong payments partner". Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 July 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  46. ^ "Ant Financial enters Hong Kong market with AlipayHK app". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 4 July 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  47. ^ "Hong Kong fishmongers poised to lead city's cashless revolution". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 3 January 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  48. ^ "Alipay turns gaze to wet markets in HK e-payments push". EJ Insight. 24 October 2017. Archived from the original on 12 February 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  49. ^ Yiu, Enoch (28 September 2020). "Ant Bank launch marks another milestone for Ant Group's expansion in Hong Kong ahead of mega listing". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  50. ^ "Alipay Chases Chinese Tourists to Japan". Bloomberg.com. 20 December 2017. Archived from the original on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  51. ^ Dumlao-Abadilla, Doris (11 April 2018). "AUB, Alipay team up on online payment". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  52. ^ Ong, Michelle (26 September 2018). "Chinese tourists driving WeChat Pay, Alipay growth in Philippines". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  53. ^ "GCash to adopt Alipay cashless payment model in China and rest of Asia". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 24 November 2017. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  54. ^ hermesauto (22 August 2017). "Alipay to expand cashless payments to Singapore banking users, inks deal to expand here". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 4 July 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  55. ^ "AliPay to launch local wallet for Singapore". TODAYonline. Archived from the original on 21 January 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  56. ^ "Taxis in Seoul to Accept Alipay Starting in 2019". Thatsmags.com. 31 October 2018. Archived from the original on 25 December 2019. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  57. ^ "Alipay will be available in Seoul taxis via kakao pay beginning January 2019". Retailnews.asia. 24 October 2018. Archived from the original on 25 December 2019. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  58. ^ "South Korean Starbucks Accepts Alipay For Tourists". Pymnts.com. 12 February 2018. Archived from the original on 25 December 2019. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  59. ^ "支付宝与越南国家结算公司签署战略合作协议正式登陆越南-新华丝路". www.imsilkroad.com. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  60. ^ Murphy, Paige. "Tourism Australia to test pilot 12 month program for Chinese tourists - foodservice". www.foodservicenews.com.au. Archived from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  61. ^ "First Data to Power Alipay in North America". First Data. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  62. ^ Russell, Jon. "Alipay, China's top mobile payment service, expands to the U.S." TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  63. ^ "关于我们 | 专业移动跨境支付服务公司". SnapPay (in Simplified Chinese). Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  64. ^ "OTT Pay Inc. Partners with Cadillac Fairview to Launch Chinese Mobile Payments at Select CF Shopping Centres" (Press release). OTT Pay Inc. Retrieved 9 September 2019 – via Canada Newswire (Cision).
  65. ^ "Alipay partners with Canadian tech firm to expand presence in Canada". Archived from the original on 24 November 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  66. ^ "China's Alipay is becoming more widely available in Canada this week". MobileSyrup. 25 September 2017. Archived from the original on 12 February 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  67. ^ "Air Canada Expands Acceptance of Alipay and WeChat Pay to North American and Hong Kong Websites". MarketWatch. 25 August 2018. Archived from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  68. ^ "Silkpay.eu". Silkpay.eu. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  69. ^ "Pourquoi choisir Alipay pour les entreprises Françaises ?". 27 September 2022. Archived from the original on 28 September 2022. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  70. ^ "Opna dyr að Kína". Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  71. ^ "Hægt að borga með Alipay á Keflavíkurflugvelli". Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  72. ^ "AliPay, UniCredit Team To Enable Chinese Tourists To Pay For Goods In Italy Via AliPay". 7 April 2017. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  73. ^ "Alipay makes Italian move through Sella tie-up". 17 April 2018. Archived from the original on 7 November 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  74. ^ Holøien, Martine (11 December 2018). "Vipps inngår samarbeid med nettgigant". www.hegnar.no (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 11 December 2018. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  75. ^ "Сбербанк запустит переводы по номеру телефона в Китай в партнёрстве с Alipay" (in Russian). Интерфакс. 21 December 2021. Archived from the original on 23 December 2021. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  76. ^ "Barclaycard partners with Alipay". 19 March 2019. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  77. ^ European Central Bank (24 February 2018). "Definition of instant payment system". Archived from the original on 9 September 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  78. ^ "Chinese regulators break up Alipay, split off loan business". KrASIA. 13 September 2021. Archived from the original on 17 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  79. ^ "China plans to break up Ant's Alipay and force creation of separate loans app - FT". Reuters. 13 September 2021. Archived from the original on 13 September 2021. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  80. ^ "Alibaba shares plunge as Beijing 'seeks to break up Ant's Alipay'". The Guardian. 13 September 2021. Archived from the original on 13 September 2021. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  81. ^ "Alipay adds privacy feature as Chinese users become increasingly concerned with data protection". KrASIA. 8 November 2021. Archived from the original on 18 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  82. ^ "Government Bans 118 mobile apps which are prejudicial to sovereignty and integrity of India, defence of India, security of state and public order". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 2 September 2020. Archived from the original on 2 September 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  83. ^ Yasir, Sameer; Kumar, Hari (2 September 2020). "India Bans 118 Chinese Apps as Indian Soldier Is Killed on Disputed Border". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 13 September 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2022.

External links