List of states with limited recognition

Appearance move to sidebar hide

  UN member states that at least one other UN member state does not recognise   Non-UN member states recognised by at least one UN member state   Non-UN member states recognised only by other non-UN member states

A number of polities have declared independence and sought diplomatic recognition from the international community as sovereign states, but have not been universally recognised as such. These entities often have de facto control of their territory. A number of such entities have existed in the past.

There are two traditional theories used to indicate how a sovereign state comes into being. The declarative theory (codified in the 1933 Montevideo Convention) defines a state as a person in international law if it meets the following criteria:

  1. a defined territory
  2. a permanent population
  3. a government, and
  4. a capacity to enter into relations with other states.

According to the declarative theory, an entity's statehood is independent of its recognition by other states. By contrast, the constitutive theory defines a state as a person of international law only if it is recognised as such by other states that are already a member of the international community.

Quasi-states often reference either or both doctrines in order to legitimise their claims to statehood. There are, for example, entities which meet the declarative criteria (with de facto partial or complete control over their claimed territory, a government and a permanent population), but whose statehood is not recognised by any other states. Non-recognition is often a result of conflicts with other countries that claim those entities as integral parts of their territory. In other cases, two or more partially recognised states may claim the same territorial area, with each of them de facto in control of a portion of it (for example, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the People's Republic of China). Entities that are recognised by only a minority of the world's states usually reference the declarative doctrine to legitimise their claims.

In many situations, international non-recognition is influenced by the presence of a foreign military force in the territory of the contested entity, making the description of the country's de facto status problematic. The international community can judge this military presence too intrusive, reducing the entity to a puppet state where effective sovereignty is retained by the foreign power. Historical cases in this sense can be seen in Japanese-led Manchukuo or the German-created Slovak Republic and Independent State of Croatia before and during World War II. In the 1996 case Loizidou v. Turkey, the European Court of Human Rights judged Turkey for having exercised authority in the territory of Northern Cyprus.

There are also entities that do not have control over any territory or do not unequivocally meet the declarative criteria for statehood but have been recognised to exist as sovereign entities by at least one other state. Historically, this has happened in the case of the Holy See (1870–1929); Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (during Soviet annexation); and Palestine at the time of its declaration of independence in 1988. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is currently in this position. See list of governments in exile for unrecognised governments without control over the territory claimed.

Criteria for inclusion

State practice relating to the recognition of a country typically falls somewhere between the declarative theory and constitutive theory approaches.

The criteria for inclusion on this list is limited to polities that claim sovereignty, lack recognition from at least one UN member state, and either:

Background

Women in Somaliland wearing the colors of the Somaliland flag

There are 193 United Nations (UN) member states, while both the Holy See and Palestine have observer state status in the United Nations. However, some countries that fulfill the declarative criteria, are recognised by the large majority of other states and are members of the United Nations are still included in the list here because one or more other states do not recognise their statehood, due to territorial claims or other conflicts.

Some states maintain informal (officially non-diplomatic) relations with states that do not officially recognise them. Taiwan (the Republic of China) is one such state, as it maintains unofficial relations with many other states through its Economic and Cultural Offices, which allow regular consular services. This allows Taiwan to have economic relations even with states that do not formally recognise it. A total of 56 states, including Germany, Italy, the United States, and the United Kingdom, maintain some form of unofficial mission in Taiwan. Kosovo, Northern Cyprus, Abkhazia, Transnistria, the Sahrawi Republic, Somaliland, and Palestine also host informal diplomatic missions, and/or maintain special delegations or other informal missions abroad.

States that are state parties within the United Nations System

UN member states not recognised by at least one UN member state
Name Declared Status Other claimants Further information
 Armenia 1991 Armenia, independent since 1991, is not recognised by one UN member, Pakistan, which has a position of supporting Azerbaijan since the First Nagorno-Karabakh War. None Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
 China 1949 The People's Republic of China (PRC), proclaimed in 1949, is the more widely recognised of the two claimant governments of China, the other being Taiwan (the Republic of China). The United Nations recognised the ROC as the sole representative of China until 1971, when it decided to give this recognition to the PRC instead (see United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758). The PRC and the ROC do not recognise each other's statehood, and each enforces its own version of the One China policy meaning that no state can recognise both of them at the same time. The states that recognise the ROC (11 UN members and the Holy See as of 15 January 2024) regard it as the sole legitimate government of China and therefore do not recognise the PRC.  Taiwan (the Republic of China) considers itself to be the sole legitimate government of all of China, and therefore claims exclusive sovereignty over all territory controlled by the PRC. See also: One China. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)PRC's diplomatic relations dates of establishment
 Cyprus 1960 The Republic of Cyprus, independent since 1960, is not recognised by one UN member (Turkey) and one non-UN member (Northern Cyprus), due to the ongoing civil dispute over the island. Turkey does not accept the Republic's rule over the whole island and refers to it as the "Greek Administration of Southern Cyprus".  Northern Cyprus claims the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
 Israel 1948 Israel, founded in 1948, is not recognised by 28 UN members. The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which enjoys majority international recognition as sole representative of the Palestinian people, recognised Israel in 1993. In January 2018 and October 2018, the Palestinian Central Council voted to suspend recognition of Israel, but this position has yet to be acted upon by Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas.  Palestine considers itself to be the legitimate government of the West Bank, which is under Israeli occupation, and the Gaza Strip.
 Syria considers itself to be the legitimate government of the Golan Heights, a territory which Israel controls and claims with limited recognition.
Foreign relations, missions (of, to)International recognition
 North Korea 1948 North Korea (officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea), independent since 1948, is not recognised by one UN member, South Korea.  South Korea considers itself to be the sole legitimate government of Korea, and claims all territory controlled by North Korea. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
 South Korea 1948 South Korea (officially the Republic of Korea), independent since 1948, is not recognised by one UN member, North Korea.  North Korea considers itself to be the sole legitimate government of Korea, and claims all territory controlled by South Korea. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
UN General Assembly observer states not recognised by at least one UN member state
Name Declared Status Other claimants Further information
 Palestine 1988 Israel gained control of the Palestinian territories as a result of the Six-Day War in 1967, but has never formally annexed them. The State of Palestine (commonly known as Palestine) was declared in 1988 by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which is recognised by a majority of UN member states and the UN itself as the sole representative of the Palestinian people. Since the end of the first Palestinian Intifada against Israel the Israeli government has gradually moved its armed forces and settlers out of certain parts of Palestine's claimed territory, while still maintaining varying degrees of control over most of it. The Palestinian National Authority (PNA), which performs limited internal government functions over certain areas of Palestine, was established in 1994. The 2007 split between the Fatah and Hamas political parties resulted in competing governments claiming to represent the PNA and Palestine, with Fatah exercising authority exclusively over the West Bank and enjoying majority recognition from UN member states, and a separate Hamas leadership exercising authority exclusively over the Gaza area (except for a short period from 2014 to 2016). Palestine is currently officially recognised as a state by 144 UN member states, the Holy See, and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. The remaining UN member states, including Israel, do not recognise the State of Palestine. The United Nations designates the claimed Palestinian territories as "occupied" by Israel, and accorded Palestine non-member observer state status in 2012 (see United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19). Palestine also has membership in the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and UNESCO.  Israel regards the area claimed by Palestine as "disputed" territory (that is, territory not legally belonging to any state). Foreign relations, missions (of, to) International recognition, Israeli–Palestinian peace process, Proposals for a Palestinian state
UN specialized agency member states not recognised by at least one UN member state
Name Declared Status Other claimants Further information
 Cook Islands 1965 The Cook Islands became a state in free association with New Zealand in 1965. Although the Cook Islands are fully self-governing and behave as a sovereign state in international law, their constitutional status is different from that of a fully independent state, considering that all Cook Islands nationals are New Zealand citizens, and the country's head of state is the Monarch of New Zealand. As of 2015, the Cook Islands had established diplomatic relations with 43 states, while the number as of April 2023 is at least 53 UN member states, as well as the Holy See, Kosovo, Niue and the European Union. Some countries establishing diplomatic relations such as the United States have recognized the Cook Islands as a fully sovereign state, while some such as France have not. The Cook Islands are a member of nine United Nations specialized agencies, and the United Nations currently classifies the Cook Islands as a "non-member state", a category unique only to it and Niue. State in free association with  New Zealand, recognized by some as having no sovereignty. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) Political status
 Kosovo 2008 Kosovo declared its independence in 2008. It is currently recognised by 104 UN members, Taiwan, the Cook Islands and Niue. 10 other UN members have recognised Kosovo and subsequently withdrawn recognition. The United Nations, as stipulated in Security Council Resolution 1244, has administered the territory since 1999 through the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, with cooperation from the European Union since 2008. Kosovo is a member of two United Nations specialized agencies (the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group), as well as the Venice Commission, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the International Olympic Committee, among others.  Serbia claims Kosovo as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) International recognition; Political status
 Niue 1974 Niue became a state in free association with New Zealand in 1974 after a constitutional referendum. Although Niue is fully self-governing and behaves as a sovereign state in international law, its constitutional status is different from that of a fully independent state, considering that all Niue nationals are New Zealand citizens, and the country's head of state is the Monarch of New Zealand. As of April 2023, Niue has established diplomatic relations with at least 26 UN member states, as well as the Cook Islands and the European Union. Niue is a member of eight United Nations specialized agencies, and the United Nations currently classifies Niue as a "non-member state", a category unique only to it and the Cook Islands. State in free association with  New Zealand, considered by some as having no sovereignty. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) Political status

States that are not state parties within the United Nations System

Non-UN member states recognised by at least one UN member state
Name Declared Status Other claimants Further information
 Abkhazia 1999 Abkhazia declared its independence in 1999. It is currently recognised by 5 UN member states (Russia, Syria, Nicaragua, Venezuela, and Nauru), and two non-UN member states (South Ossetia and Transnistria). Two additional UN member states (Tuvalu and Vanuatu) had recognised Abkhazia, but subsequently withdrew their recognition.  Georgia claims Abkhazia as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) International recognition
 Northern Cyprus 1983 Northern Cyprus declared its independence in 1983 with its official name being the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC). It is recognised by one UN member, Turkey. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization have granted Northern Cyprus observer status under the name "Turkish Cypriot State". United Nations Security Council Resolution 541 defines the declaration of independence of Northern Cyprus as legally invalid. The International Court of Justice stated in its advisory opinion on Kosovo's declaration of independence in 2010 that "the Security Council in an exceptional character attached illegality to the DOI of TRNC because it was, or would have been connected with the unlawful use of force".  Cyprus claims the TRNC as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) Cyprus dispute
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 1976 Morocco invaded and annexed most of Western Sahara, forcing Spain to withdraw from the territory in 1975. In 1976, the Polisario Front declared the independence of Western Sahara as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR). The SADR is largely a government in exile located in Algeria, which claims the entire territory of Western Sahara, but controls only a small fraction of it. The SADR is recognised by 46 UN member states and South Ossetia. 38 other UN member states have recognised the SADR but subsequently retracted or suspended recognition, pending the outcome of a referendum on self-determination. The remaining UN member states, including Morocco, have never recognised the SADR. The SADR is a member of the African Union. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 34/37 recognised the right of the Western Sahara people to self-determination and recognised also the Polisario Front as the representative of the Western Sahara people. Western Sahara is listed on the United Nations list of non-self-governing territories. Other than Morocco and the United States, no state officially recognises Morocco's annexation of Western Sahara, but some states support the Moroccan autonomy plan. The Arab League supports Morocco's claim over the entire territory of Western Sahara.  Morocco claims Western Sahara (including the area controlled by the SADR) as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) International recognition; Political status
 South Ossetia 1992 South Ossetia declared its independence in 1992. It is currently recognised by 5 UN member states (Russia, Syria, Nicaragua, Venezuela, and Nauru), and three non-UN member states (Abkhazia, Transnistria and Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic). One additional UN member state (Tuvalu) had recognised South Ossetia, but subsequently withdrew its recognition.  Georgia claims South Ossetia as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) International recognition
 Taiwan 1912/1949 Taiwan (formally known as the Republic of China), enjoyed majority recognition as the sole government of China until roughly the late 1950s/1960s, when a majority of UN member states started to gradually switch recognition to the People's Republic of China (PRC). The United Nations itself recognised the ROC as the sole representative of China until 1971, when it decided to give this recognition to the PRC instead (see United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758). The ROC and PRC do not recognise each other's statehood, and each enforces its own version of the One China policy meaning that no state can recognise both of them at the same time. The ROC is currently recognised by 11 UN members and the Holy See. All remaining UN member states, as well as the Cook Islands and Niue, recognise the PRC instead of the ROC and either accept the PRC's territorial claim over Taiwan or take a non-committal position on Taiwan's status. A significant number of PRC-recognising UN member states, as well as the Republic of Somaliland, nonetheless conduct officially non-diplomatic relations with the ROC, designating it as either "Taipei" or "Taiwan". Since the early 1990s, the ROC has sought separate United Nations membership under a variety of names, including "Taiwan". The  People's Republic of China considers itself to be the sole legitimate government of all of China, and therefore claims exclusive sovereignty over all territory controlled by Taiwan. See also: One China. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)Political status
Non-UN member states recognised only by other non-UN member states
Name Declared Status Other claimants Further information
 Somaliland 1991 Somaliland declared its independence in 1991. It claims to be the legal successor to the State of Somaliland, a short lived sovereign state that existed from 26 June 1960 (when the British Somaliland Protectorate gained full independence from the United Kingdom) to 1 July 1960 (when the State of Somaliland united with Somalia to form the Somali Republic). It is recognized by Taiwan (the Republic of China). Taiwan and Somaliland have mutual representative offices in each other's countries, similarly to how Taiwan conducts relations with other countries that do not recognize it. Somaliland is not officially recognised by any UN member state, though it maintains unofficial relations with a limited number of them. On 1 January 2024, Ethiopia and Somaliland signed a memorandum of understanding giving Ethiopia access to the Red Sea via the port of Berbera in return for a potential recognition.  Somalia claims Somaliland as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
 Transnistria 1990 Transnistria (officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic) declared its independence in 1990. It is recognised by two non-UN members: Abkhazia and South Ossetia.  Moldova claims Transnistria as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) International recognition, Political status

Other entities with limited recognition of sovereignty

Political entities recognised as sovereign by at least one UN member state
Name Declared Status Other claimants Further information
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 1113 The Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) is considered a sovereign non-state entity, as it claims neither statehood nor territory. First recognized as sovereign by Pope Paschal II in 1113, it has established full diplomatic relations with 113 UN member states as a sovereign subject of international law, and also maintains diplomatic relations with the European Union, the Holy See, and the State of Palestine. Additionally, it participates in the United Nations as an observer entity. Some states, such as San Marino, recognize SMOM as a sovereign state, rather than a sovereign subject of international law. Italy's Supreme Court of Cassation decreed on 6 June 1974 that SMOM "constitutes a sovereign international subject, in all terms equal, even if without territory, to a foreign state with which Italy has normal diplomatic relations". As Italy recognizes, in addition to extraterritoriality, SMOM sovereignty within its headquarters in Italy, Italian and SMOM sovereignty uniquely coexist without overlapping. None Foreign relations, missions (of, to)

Excluded entities

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China officially claim to represent the whole of China, stating China is a single sovereign entity encompassing both the area controlled by the PRC and the area controlled by the ROC. Neither the PRC nor the ROC officially recognise each other's claim to statehood, and they compete for diplomatic recognition as the only legitimate representative of China among other states. Historically, both the PRC and the ROC have broken off diplomatic relations with any state engaging in diplomatic relations or claiming to recognise the other, though the ROC has in some instances accepted dual recognition since it transitioned to democracy in the 1990s. However, as of 2021 no state officially recognises both the ROC and the PRC.
  2. ^ a b Israel allows the PNA to execute some functions in the Palestinian territories, depending on special area classification. Israel maintains minimal interference (retaining control of borders: air, sea beyond internal waters, land) in the Gaza Strip (its interior and Egypt portion of the land border are under Hamas control), maximum in "Area C" and varying degrees of interference elsewhere. See also Israeli-occupied territories.
  3. ^ It is far from certain that micronations, which are generally of minuscule size, have sovereign control over their claimed territories, contrasted with the mere disregard and indifference toward micronations' assertions by the states from which they allege to have seceded. By not deeming such declarations (and other acts of the micronation) important enough to react in any way, these states generally consider micronations to be private property and their claims as unofficial private announcements of individuals, who remain subject to the laws of the states in which their properties are located.

References

  1. ^ Grant, Thomas D., The recognition of states: law and practice in debate and evolution (Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1999), chapter 1.
  2. ^ Lauterpacht, Hersch (2012). Recognition in International Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 64. ISBN 9781107609433. Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  3. ^ "Introduction: The Strange Endurance of De Facto States". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 3 December 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  4. ^ Grzybowski, Janis (2017). "To Be or Not to Be: The Ontological Predicament of State Creation in International Law". European Journal of International Law. 28 (2). Oxford University Press (OUP): 409–432. doi:10.1093/ejil/chx031. ISSN 0938-5428.
  5. ^ Lemkin, Raphaël (2008) . Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation, Analysis of Government, Proposals for Redress. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-58477-901-8. Retrieved 30 June 2019. The creation of puppet states or of puppet governments does not give them any special status under international law in the occupied territory. Therefore the puppet governments and puppet states have no greater rights in the occupied territory than the occupant himself. Their actions should be considered as actions of the occupant and hence subject to the limitations of the Hague Regulations.
  6. ^ Middlebush, Frederick A. (1934). "The Effect of the Non-Recognition of Manchukuo". American Political Science Review. 28 (4). Cambridge University Press (CUP): 677–683. doi:10.2307/1947199. ISSN 0003-0554. JSTOR 1947199. S2CID 147030868.
  7. ^ Rudolf, Beate (1997). "Loizidou v. Turkey (Merits)". American Journal of International Law. 91 (3). Cambridge University Press (CUP): 532–537. doi:10.2307/2954189. ISSN 0002-9300. JSTOR 2954189. S2CID 228739345.
  8. ^ Mälksoo, Lauri (2003). Illegal annexation and state continuity: the case of the incorporation of the Baltic states by the USSR. M. Nijhoff Publishers. p. 76. ISBN 978-90-411-2177-6. Archived from the original on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 12 October 2023. incorporation into the Soviet Union in 1940 took place against the will of the population, and was never recognised de jure by most countries
  9. ^ Shaw, Malcolm Nathan (2003). International law (5th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 369. ISBN 978-0-521-53183-2.
  10. ^ Cohen, Rosalyn (1961). "The Concept of Statehood in United Nations Practice". University of Pennsylvania Law Review. 109 (8): 1127–1171. doi:10.2307/3310588. JSTOR 3310588. S2CID 56273534. Archived from the original on 19 January 2024. Retrieved 26 January 2024.
  11. ^ Kelsen, Hans (1941). "Recognition in International Law: Theoretical Observations". The American Journal of International Law. 35 (4). American Society of International Law: 605–617. doi:10.2307/2192561. ISSN 0002-9300. JSTOR 2192561. S2CID 147309779. Archived from the original on 18 January 2024. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  12. ^ Lauterpacht, H. (1944). "Recognition of States in International Law". The Yale Law Journal. 53 (3). The Yale Law Journal Company, Inc.: 385–458. doi:10.2307/792830. ISSN 0044-0094. JSTOR 792830. Archived from the original on 18 January 2024. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  13. ^ "Principles of the Recognition of States" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 March 2024. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  14. ^ Bedjaoui, M. (1991). International Law: Achievements and Prospects. Democracy and power. Springer Netherlands. p. 47]. ISBN 978-92-3-102716-1. Archived from the original on 14 November 2022. Retrieved 23 January 2024.
  15. ^ Seguin, Denis (29 July 2011). "What makes a country?". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 24 January 2024. Retrieved 24 January 2024.
  16. ^ "Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 January 2024. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  17. ^ "States, Sovereignty, Treaties". Encyclopedia Britannica. 26 July 1999. Archived from the original on 30 April 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  18. ^ "Statehood and Recognition". academic.oup.com. Archived from the original on 26 January 2024. Retrieved 21 January 2024.
  19. ^ "Non-member State". Un.org. Archived from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  20. ^ "Germany – Countries A to Z". Auswaertiges-amt.de. Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  21. ^ "Ambasciate Consolati e Uffici di promozione". Esteri.it. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
  22. ^ U.S. Department of State Websites of U.S. Embassies, Consulates, and Diplomatic Missions Archived 6 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 3 February 2011
  23. ^ "Find an Embassy". Fco.gov.uk. 14 March 2008. Archived from the original on 26 July 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  24. ^ "Foreign Missions in Kosovo". Government of Kosovo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 24 August 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  25. ^ "Representative Offices Abroad". Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Public Information Office. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  26. ^ a b "Abkhazia in the system of international relations". Government of Abkhazia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  27. ^ "Pagina nueva 1". Archived from the original on 10 August 2011.
  28. ^ "Contacts and addresses of the Somaliland Representative Offices around the world". Government of Somaliland. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  29. ^ "Embassies, Missions, General and Special Delegations of Palestine abroad". WebGaza.net. Archived from the original on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  30. ^ Pakistan Worldview – Report 21 – Visit to Azerbaijan Senate of Pakistan — Senate foreign relations committee, 2008
  31. ^ Nilufer Bakhtiyar: "For Azerbaijan Pakistan does not recognise Armenia as a country" Archived 13 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine 13 September 2006 – Today.Az
  32. ^ "Constitution of the People's Republic of China". International Human Rights Treaties and Documents Database. Archived from the original on 16 January 2000. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  33. ^ a b Horton, Chris (8 July 2019). "Taiwan's Status Is a Geopolitical Absurdity". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 16 June 2024. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  34. ^ European Parliament Directorate-General External Policies Policy Department "Turkey and the problem of the recognition of Cyprus" Archived 19 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine 20 January 2005 Retrieved 3 February 2011
  35. ^ CIA World Factbook (28 February 2008). "Cyprus". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  36. ^ "Cyprus exists without Turkey's recognition: president". Xinhua Online. XINHUA. 1 October 2005. Archived from the original on 13 March 2006. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
  37. ^ European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs "The influence of Turkish military forces on political agenda-setting in Turkey, analysed on the basis of the Cyprus question" Archived 22 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine 18 February 2008 Retrieved 3 February 2011
  38. ^ Government of Israel (14 May 1948). "Declaration of Israel's Independence 1948". Yale University. Archived from the original on 7 January 2019. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  39. ^ United States Congress (5 June 2008). "H. RES. 1249" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 March 2018. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  40. ^ "'Reply' Online Book Chapter 1". Mythsandfacts.org. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  41. ^ "Khartoum Resolution". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
  42. ^ Government of Israel. "Israel's Diplomatic Missions Abroad: Status of relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 5 May 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
  43. ^ Bachner, Michael. "Top Palestinian body calls for revoking recognition of Israel, nixing agreements". www.timesofisrael.com. Archived from the original on 20 August 2021. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  44. ^ "PA's Mahmoud Abbas declares suspension of all deals with Israel". Al Jazeera. 26 July 2019. Archived from the original on 15 October 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  45. ^ "PLO suspends recognition of Israel". Middle East Monitor. 30 October 2018. Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  46. ^ a b Scofield, David (4 January 2005). "Seoul's double-talk on reunification". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 4 January 2005. Retrieved 29 February 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  47. ^ Da-gyum, Ji; Ji-hyoung, Son (11 July 2023). "Kim Yo-jong's reference to South as 'Republic of Korea' may indicate change". The Korea Herald. Archived from the original on 23 February 2024. Retrieved 23 February 2024.
  48. ^ US Library of Congress (7 October 2000). "World War II and Korea". Country Studies. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  49. ^ Sterngold, James (3 September 1994). "China, Backing North Korea, Quits Armistice Commission". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 March 2008. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
  50. ^ a b Staff writers (20 February 2008). "Palestinians 'may declare state'". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2011.:"Saeb Erekat, disagreed arguing that the Palestine Liberation Organisation had already declared independence in 1988. "Now we need real independence, not a declaration. We need real independence by ending the occupation. We are not Kosovo. We are under Israeli occupation and for independence we need to acquire independence".
  51. ^ "International Recognition of the State of Palestine". Official website of the Palestinian National Authority. November 1988. Archived from the original on 10 October 2003.. The PNA has publicly acknowledged recognition from 94 states, including the former Yugoslavia.
  52. ^ "Embassies of Palestine". Webgaza.net. Archived from the original on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  53. ^ Bannoura, Saed (28 August 2011). "124 Out Of 193 Countries Recognize Palestinian Independence". IMEMC News. International Middle East Media Center. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  54. ^ Shelley, Toby (1988). "Spotlight on Morocco". West Africa (3712–3723: 5–31 December). London: West Africa Publishing Company Ltd: 2282. "... the SADR was one of the first countries to recognise the state of Palestine."
  55. ^ Heaney, Christopher. "Committee on Exercise of Inalienable Rights of Palestinian People – GA Resolution (A/RES/73/18)". Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  56. ^ "Palestinians win upgraded UN status by wide margin". BBC News. 29 November 2012. Archived from the original on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  57. ^ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. "Arab States: Palestine". United Nations. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
  58. ^ "Disputed Territories- Forgotten Facts About the West Bank and Gaza Strip". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 1 February 2003. Archived from the original on 27 February 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
  59. ^ a b "Israel's control of the airspace and the territorial waters of the Gaza Strip". btselem.org. Archived from the original on 28 June 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  60. ^ "Map of Gaza fishing limits, "security zones"". dissidentvoice.org. December 2009. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  61. ^ Israel's Disengagement Plan: Renewing the Peace Process Archived 3 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine: "Israel will guard the perimeter of the Gaza Strip, continue to control Gaza air space, and continue to patrol the sea off the Gaza coast. ... Israel will continue to maintain its essential military presence to prevent arms smuggling along the border between the Gaza Strip and Egypt (Philadelphi Route), until the security situation and cooperation with Egypt permit an alternative security arrangement."
  62. ^ a b Dore Gold (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  63. ^ a b Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  64. ^ a b "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  65. ^ a b Zak M. Salih (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza's Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  66. ^ a b "Israel: "Disengagement" Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 28 October 2004. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  67. ^ "About Cook Islands". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 11 February 2021. Archived from the original on 25 April 2023. Retrieved 21 April 2023.
  68. ^ a b "Home Page - Pacific Islands Report". pidp.eastwestcenter.org. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  69. ^ Smith, Stephen Eliot. "Uncharted Waters: Has the Cook Islands become Eligible for Membership in the United Nations" (PDF). New Zealand Journal of Public and International Law. 8: 169–215. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 June 2021. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  70. ^ "Cook Islands' application for membership" (PDF). intaff.gov.ck. 13 November 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 November 2019. Retrieved 21 April 2023.
  71. ^ "U.S confirms recognition of the Cook Islands as a sovereign state". PINA. 30 September 2022. Archived from the original on 14 April 2023. Retrieved 21 April 2023.
  72. ^ "Cook Islands". La France en Nouvelle Zélande. 21 December 2018. Archived from the original on 7 April 2023. Retrieved 21 April 2023.
  73. ^ a b "United Nations - The World Today". Un.org. 1 September 2019. Archived from the original on 3 December 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2023.
  74. ^ a b "UN: "data for 197 countries: all 193 member states, two observer states (the Holy See and Palestine) and two non-member states (Cook Islands and Niue)"" (PDF). Un.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 November 2022. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  75. ^ a b Perrier, Marine Mulcey, translated by Lucie. "A World Tour of the States not recognized by the UN". Archived from the original on 6 December 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  76. ^ a b "United Nations Treaty Collection". Treaties.un.org. Archived from the original on 10 June 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  77. ^ "Kosovo MPs proclaim independence". BBC News. 17 February 2008. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  78. ^ "Kosovo" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  79. ^ Affairs, New Zealand Ministry of Foreign (7 November 2022). "Niue". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 21 April 2023. Retrieved 21 April 2023.
  80. ^ "Regions and territories: Abkhazia". BBC News. 8 February 2011. Archived from the original on 5 November 2019. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  81. ^ a b "Russia recognises Georgian rebels". 26 August 2008. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  82. ^ a b "Venezuela's Chavez draws closer to Moscow". Reuters. 10 September 2009. Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
  83. ^ a b "Syria formally recognizes Abkhazia and South Ossetia". Eurasianet. 29 May 2018. Archived from the original on 29 May 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  84. ^ Clogg, Rachel (2001). "Abkhazia: Ten Years On" (PDF). Conciliation Resources. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  85. ^ a b "South Ossetia opens embassy in Abkhazia". The Tiraspol Times. Archived from the original on 22 April 2008.
  86. ^ Government of Tuvalu (20 September 2011). "On the establishment of diplomatic relations between Republic of Abkhazia and Tuvalu". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 11 November 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  87. ^ a b "Tuvalu takes back recognition of independence of Abkhazia and so-called South Ossetia". 31 March 2014. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  88. ^ a b "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia – Ministry's Statements". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  89. ^ Government of Vanuatu (17 June 2011). "Vanuatu's recognition to the Republic of Abkhazia". Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  90. ^ "Natapei withdraws recognition of Abkhazia | Vanuatu Daily Post". 21 January 2012. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2023.
  91. ^ "Georgia Says Vanuatu Has Withdrawn Recognition of Abkhazia". Bloomberg L.P. 20 May 2013. Archived from the original on 3 November 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  92. ^ "Security Council resolution 541 (1983) on Cyprus". Un.int. Archived from the original on 28 August 2003. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  93. ^ "Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo, Paragraph 81" (PDF). International Court of Justice. 22 July 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  94. ^ Zunes, Stephen; Mundy, Jacob (4 August 2010). Western Sahara: War, Nationalism, and Conflict Irresolution. Syracuse University Press. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-0-8156-3219-1. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  95. ^ "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic". 27 February 1976. Archived from the original on 2 May 2008. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  96. ^ "Here the states which recognize the SADR. It is a non-official list, with dates of recognition and cancellation". ARSO. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
  97. ^ "About Western Sahara". Australia Western Sahara Association. November 2006. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
  98. ^ "Resolutions : General Assembly (GA), 34th session : United Nations (UN)". 10 October 2011. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  99. ^ "Proclamation on Recognizing The Sovereignty Of The Kingdom Of Morocco Over The Western Sahara". whitehouse.gov. 10 December 2020. Archived from the original on 13 February 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2021 – via National Archives.
  100. ^ "Morocco king rejects independence for Western Sahara". Arab News. 7 November 2017. Archived from the original on 10 June 2022. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  101. ^ "A reply of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of South Ossetia to IA "Res" Question Concerning the Act of Adoption of RSO State Independence on 29 of May 1992". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of South Ossetia. 29 May 2010. Archived from the original on 24 January 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  102. ^ Global Investment and Business Center, Inc. Staff Taiwan Foreign Policy and National Security Yearbook 2011 Second Edition International Business Publications, USA ISBN 0-7397-3660-4 Online version available at Google Books
  103. ^ "Routledge Handbook of State Recognition". Routledge & CRC Press. Archived from the original on 19 July 2021. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  104. ^ "Taiwan cuts ties with Costa Rica over recognition for China". The New York Times. 7 June 2007. Archived from the original on 18 July 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  105. ^ Winkler, Sigrid (20 June 2012). "Taiwan's UN Dilemma: To Be or Not To Be". Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  106. ^ "Somaliland profile". BBC News. 11 July 2011. Archived from the original on 16 December 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2023.
  107. ^ Blas, Javier (3 January 2024). "A Land Deal Cranks Up the Tension in the Red Sea". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on 16 June 2024. Retrieved 18 May 2024.
  108. ^ Asia West and Africa Department. "Republic of Somaliland". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2023.
  109. ^ "Taiwan opens representative office in Somaliland". 17 August 2020. Archived from the original on 1 March 2023. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  110. ^ "Somaliland launches representative office in Taiwan". 9 September 2020. Archived from the original on 1 March 2023. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  111. ^ Kheyr (1 January 2024). "Somaliland and Ethiopia: Recognition for Sea Access". Somali News in English | The Somali Digest. Archived from the original on 2 January 2024. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  112. ^ Endeshaw, Dawit; Sheikh, Abdi (1 January 2024). "Ethiopia signs pact to use Somaliland's Red Sea port". Reuters. Archived from the original on 30 May 2024. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  113. ^ "Abkhazia: Ten Years On". BBC 2. 2001. Archived from the original on 21 December 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  114. ^ "La Orden de Malta y su Naturaleza Jurídica". Venezuela Analitica. 1 May 1999. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015. English language translation "The Order of Malta, within the limits that are compatible with its actual position as a subject deprived of territory, is in the international community, a sovereign entity on par with the States, and the Prince Grand Master is comparable, from the point of view of international law, to the Heads of State."
  115. ^ Permanent Observer Mission of the Order of Malta to the United Nations in New York "The admission of Order of Malta to the United Nations also further solidified its legally recognized sovereignty ..."
  116. ^ Shaw, Malcolm Nathan International Law Fifth Edition Cambridge University Press 2003 ISBN 0-521-82473-7 p. 218 Searchable text Archived 13 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine, available via Amazon.com, "The Italian Court of Cassation in 1935 recognised the international personality of the Order, noting that 'the modern theory of the subjects of international law recognises a number of collective units whose composition is independent of the nationality of their constituent members and whose scope transcends by virtue of their universal character the territorial confines of any single state.' (Nanni v. Pace and the Sovereign Order of Malta 8 AD, p. 2.)"
  117. ^ "Reconócese a la Soberana Orden Militar de Malta como Entidad Internacionál Independiente". Boletín Oficiál de la República Argentina, Año LIX, Número 16.92. Buenos Aires. 19 June 1951. p. 1. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016. "The Senate and Chamber of Deputies of Argentina, in Congress assembled, enact as LAW: Article 1 – The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is hereby recognized as an international independent entity."
  118. ^ a b Arocha, Magaly (May 1999). "La Orden de Malta y su Naturaleza Jurídica (The Order of Malta and Its Legal Nature)". Caracas, Distrito Capital, Venezuela: Analítica.com. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2012. English language translation "he clear territorial separation of sovereign areas that exists between the Italian State and the State of Vatican City does not exist between the Order of Malta and the Italian State, but neither can it be said that the treatment given to the headquarters of the Order (Aventine, Via Condotti) is, simply, that reserved for the headquarters of diplomatic missions accredited to the Italian State. In fact, the headquarters of the Order have diplomatic extraterritoriality (authoritarian acts of any kind – executive, acts of inspection, judicial – cannot take place inside), but in addition, the Italian State recognizes the exercise, in the headquarters, of the prerogatives of sovereignty. This means that Italian sovereignty and Maltese sovereignty coexist without overlapping, because the Order exercises sovereign functions in a wider area than occurs in the diplomatic missions of the States for, although enjoy extraterritoriality, the guarantees deriving from the privilege of immunity are constrained to a purely administrative area; the Order, instead, makes use of extraterritoriality to meet the very acts of sovereign self-determination that are the same as the States (legislative, judicial, administrative, financial acts)."
  119. ^ The Sovereign Military Order of Malta maintains embassies around the world and receives accreditations from foreign ambassadors.
  120. ^ "Bilateral relations". Sovereign Order of Malta. 5 April 2023. Archived from the original on 25 June 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2023.
  121. ^ Cansacchi, Giorgio (1940). Il diritto di legazione attivo e passivo dell'Ordine de Malta. p. 65.
  122. ^ Astraudo, A. (1935). "Saint-marin et l'Ordre de Malta". La Revue Diplomatique. 7.
  123. ^ Cox, Noel S.B., The Continuing Question of Sovereignty and the Sovereign Military Order of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (June 2008). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1140462 Archived 13 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1140462 Archived 13 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  124. ^ "Corte Suprema di Cassazione; Sezioni unite civili; sentenza 6 giugno 1974, n. 1653" (PDF). Il Foro Italiano. 98 (6): 1471/1472–1475/1476. June 1975. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 May 2022. Retrieved 10 April 2022.
  125. ^ Varming, Kirstine Strøh (2017). THE EXPERIENTIAL LIMITS OF THE STATE: TERRITORY AND TAXATION IN GAROOWE, PUNTLAND (Technical report). p. 8–14. JSTOR resrep13400.6. Retrieved 18 December 2023. This is important to consider, when discussing statehood in Puntland state, as in many ways, it functions as an independent state very much like the self-declared Republic of Somaliland.
  126. ^ Africanews, Rédaction (11 January 2023). "Somalia: Puntland state dissociates itself from Mogadishu". Africanews. Archived from the original on 18 December 2023. Retrieved 18 December 2023.
  127. ^ Brown, Nathan J. (11 June 2012). "Gaza Five Years On: Hamas Settles In". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Archived from the original on 3 May 2023. Retrieved 18 December 2023.
  128. ^ Jüde, Johannes (2017). "Contesting borders? The formation of Iraqi Kurdistan's de facto state". International Affairs. 93 (4): 847–863. doi:10.1093/ia/iix125. ISSN 0020-5850.
  129. ^ Court, Mireille; Den Hond, Chris (1 September 2017). "Experiment in self-rule in Rojava". Le Monde diplomatique. Archived from the original on 18 December 2023. Retrieved 18 December 2023.
  130. ^ Kumbun, Joe (23 April 2019). "Protected by China, Wa Is Now a de Facto Independent State". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 29 November 2022. Retrieved 11 September 2022.
  131. ^ "State Responses". Micronations and the Search for Sovereignty. Cambridge University Press. 31 December 2021. pp. 162–200. doi:10.1017/9781009150132.006. ISBN 9781009150132. S2CID 245453022.
  132. ^ "Date of Recognition and Establishment od Diplomatic Relations". mvep.gov.hr. Croatian Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. Archived from the original on 28 September 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  133. ^ "Dates of Recognition and Establishment of Diplomatic Relations". mip.gov.me. Montenegrin Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2022.

Further reading