Binomial nomenclature

Orcinus orca, the orca or the killer whale Echinopsis pachanoi, the San Pedro cactus

In taxonomy, binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called binominal nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a binomen, binominal name, or a scientific name; more informally it is also historically called a Latin name.

The first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, whereas the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – distinguishes the species within the genus. For example, modern humans belong to the genus Homo and within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is likely the most widely known binomial. The formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus, effectively beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But as early as 1622, Gaspard Bauhin introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici (English, Illustrated exposition of plants) containing many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus.

The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp or ICN). Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences in the terminology they use and their particular rules.

In modern usage, the first letter of the generic name is always capitalized in writing, while that of the specific epithet is not, even when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Similarly, both parts are italicized in normal text (or underlined in handwriting). Thus the binomial name of the annual phlox (named after botanist Thomas Drummond) is now written as Phlox drummondii. Often, after a species name is introduced in a text, the generic name is abbreviated to the first letter in subsequent mentions (e.g., P. drummondii).

In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is usually given, at least when it is first mentioned, and the year of publication may be specified.


The name is composed of two word-forming elements: bi- (Latin prefix meaning 'two') and nomial (the adjective form of nomen, Latin for 'name'). In Medieval Latin, the related word binomium was used to signify one term in a binomial expression in mathematics. In fact, the Latin word binomium may validly refer to either of the epithets in the binomial name, which can equally be referred to as a binomen (pl. binomina).


Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), a Swedish botanist, invented the modern system of binomial nomenclature.

Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name that was from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature. These names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, and second, to be a diagnosis or description; however, these two goals were eventually found to be incompatible. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; but as more species were discovered, the names necessarily became longer and unwieldy, for instance, Plantago foliis ovato-lanceolatus pubescentibus, spica cylindrica, scapo tereti ("plantain with pubescent ovate-lanceolate leaves, a cylindric spike and a terete scape"), which we know today as Plantago media.

Such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are significantly different. For example, Gerard's herbal (as amended by Johnson) describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort; the second, Phalangium non ramosum, Unbranched Spiderwort. The other ... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels.

The Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin (1560–1624), took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of strictly binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). It was in Linnaeus's 1753 Species Plantarum that he began consistently using a one-word trivial name (nomen triviale) after a generic name (genus name) in a system of binomial nomenclature. Trivial names had already appeared in his Critica Botanica (1737) and Philosophia Botanica (1751). This trivial name is what is now known as a specific epithet (ICNafp) or specific name (ICZN). The Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word.

Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could simply be to give a species a unique label. This meant that the name no longer needs to be descriptive; for example, both parts could be derived from the names of people. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virginiana, where the genus name honoured John Tradescant the Younger, an English botanist and gardener. A bird in the parrot family was named Psittacus alexandri, meaning "Alexander's parrot", after Alexander the Great, whose armies introduced eastern parakeets to Greece. Linnaeus's trivial names were much easier to remember and use than the parallel polynomial names and eventually replaced them.


The bacterium Escherichia coli, commonly shortened to E. coli

The value of the binomial nomenclature system derives primarily from its economy, its widespread use, and the uniqueness and stability of names that the Codes of Zoological and Botanical, Bacterial and Viral Nomenclature provide:


Binomial nomenclature for species has the effect that when a species is moved from one genus to another, sometimes the specific name or epithet must be changed as well. This may happen because the specific name is already used in the new genus, or to agree in gender with the new genus if the specific epithet is an adjective modifying the genus name. Some biologists have argued for the combination of the genus name and specific epithet into a single unambiguous name, or for the use of uninomials (as used in nomenclature of ranks above species).

Because genus names are unique only within a nomenclature code, it is possible for two or more species to share the same genus name and even the same binomial if they occur in different kingdoms. At least 1,258 instances of genus name duplication occur (mainly between zoology and botany).

Relationship to classification and taxonomy

Nomenclature (including binomial nomenclature) is not the same as classification, although the two are related. Classification is the ordering of items into groups based on similarities or differences; in biological classification, species are one of the kinds of item to be classified. In principle, the names given to species could be completely independent of their classification. This is not the case for binomial names, since the first part of a binomial is the name of the genus into which the species is placed. Above the rank of genus, binomial nomenclature and classification are partly independent; for example, a species retains its binomial name if it is moved from one family to another or from one order to another, unless it better fits a different genus in the same or different family, or it is split from its old genus and placed in a newly created genus. The independence is only partial since the names of families and other higher taxa are usually based on genera.

Taxonomy includes both nomenclature and classification. Its first stages (sometimes called "alpha taxonomy") are concerned with finding, describing and naming species of living or fossil organisms. Binomial nomenclature is thus an important part of taxonomy as it is the system by which species are named. Taxonomists are also concerned with classification, including its principles, procedures and rules.

Derivation of binomial names

A complete binomial name is always treated grammatically as if it were a phrase in the Latin language (hence the common use of the term "Latin name" for a binomial name). However, the two parts of a binomial name can each be derived from a number of sources, of which Latin is only one. These include:

The first part of the name, which identifies the genus, must be a word which can be treated as a Latin singular noun in the nominative case. It must be unique within the purview of each nomenclatural code, but can be repeated between them. Thus Huia recurvata is an extinct species of plant, found as fossils in Yunnan, China, whereas Huia masonii is a species of frog found in Java, Indonesia.

The second part of the name, which identifies the species within the genus, is also treated grammatically as a Latin word. It can have one of a number of forms:

Magnolia hodgsonii

Whereas the first part of a binomial name must be unique within the purview of each nomenclatural code, the second part is quite commonly used in two or more genera (as is shown by examples of hodgsonii above). The full binomial name must be unique within each code.


From the early 19th century onwards it became ever more apparent that a body of rules was necessary to govern scientific names. In the course of time these became nomenclature codes. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) governs the naming of animals, the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp) that of plants (including cyanobacteria), and the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB) that of bacteria (including Archaea). Virus names are governed by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), a taxonomic code, which determines taxa as well as names. These codes differ in certain ways, e.g.:

Summary of terminology for the names of species in the ICZN and ICNafp
Code Full name First part Second part
ICZN species name, binomen, binominal name generic name, genus name specific name
ICNafp species name, binary combination, binomial (name) generic name specific epithet

Unifying the different codes into a single code, the "BioCode", has been suggested, although implementation is not in sight. (There is also a published code for a different system of biotic nomenclature, which does not use ranks above species, but instead names clades. This is called PhyloCode.)

Differences in handling personal names

As noted above, there are some differences between the codes in how binomials can be formed; for example the ICZN allows both parts to be the same, while the ICNafp does not. Another difference is in how personal names are used in forming specific names or epithets. The ICNafp sets out precise rules by which a personal name is to be converted to a specific epithet. In particular, names ending in a consonant (but not "er") are treated as first being converted into Latin by adding "-ius" (for a man) or "-ia" (for a woman), and then being made genitive (i.e. meaning "of that person or persons"). This produces specific epithets like lecardii for Lecard (male), wilsoniae for Wilson (female), and brauniarum for the Braun sisters. By contrast, the ICZN does not require the intermediate creation of a Latin form of a personal name, allowing the genitive ending to be added directly to the personal name. This explains the difference between the names of the plant Magnolia hodgsonii and the bird Anthus hodgsoni. Furthermore, the ICNafp requires names not published in the form required by the code to be corrected to conform to it, whereas the ICZN is more protective of the form used by the original author.

Writing binomial names

By tradition, the binomial names of species are usually typeset in italics; for example, Homo sapiens. Generally, the binomial should be printed in a font style different from that used in the normal text; for example, "Several more Homo sapiens fossils were discovered." When handwritten, a binomial name should be underlined; for example, Homo sapiens.

The first part of the binomial, the genus name, is always written with an initial capital letter. Older sources, particularly botanical works published before the 1950s, used a different convention: if the second part of the name was derived from a proper noun, e.g., the name of a person or place, a capital letter was used. Thus, the modern form Berberis darwinii was written as Berberis Darwinii. A capital was also used when the name is formed by two nouns in apposition, e.g., Panthera Leo or Centaurea Cyanus. In current usage, the second part is never written with an initial capital.

When used with a common name, the scientific name often follows in parentheses, although this varies with publication. For example, "The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is decreasing in Europe."

The binomial name should generally be written in full. The exception to this is when several species from the same genus are being listed or discussed in the same paper or report, or the same species is mentioned repeatedly; in which case the genus is written in full when it is first used, but may then be abbreviated to an initial (and a period/full stop). For example, a list of members of the genus Canis might be written as "Canis lupus, C. aureus, C. simensis". In rare cases, this abbreviated form has spread to more general use; for example, the bacterium Escherichia coli is often referred to as just E. coli, and Tyrannosaurus rex is perhaps even better known simply as T. rex, these two both often appearing in this form in popular writing even where the full genus name has not already been given.

The abbreviation "sp." is used when the actual specific name cannot or need not be specified. The abbreviation "spp." (plural) indicates "several species". These abbreviations are not italicised (or underlined). For example: "Canis sp." means "an unspecified species of the genus Canis", while "Canis spp." means "two or more species of the genus Canis". (These abbreviations should not be confused with the abbreviations "ssp." (zoology) or "subsp." (botany), plurals "sspp." or "subspp.", referring to one or more subspecies. See trinomen (zoology) and infraspecific name.)

The abbreviation "cf." (i.e., confer in Latin) is used to compare individuals/taxa with known/described species. Conventions for use of the "cf." qualifier vary. In paleontology, it is typically used when the identification is not confirmed. For example, "Corvus cf. nasicus" was used to indicate "a fossil bird similar to the Cuban crow but not certainly identified as this species". In molecular systematics papers, "cf." may be used to indicate one or more undescribed species assumed to be related to a described species. For example, in a paper describing the phylogeny of small benthic freshwater fish called darters, five undescribed putative species (Ozark, Sheltowee, Wildcat, Ihiyo, and Mamequit darters), notable for brightly colored nuptial males with distinctive color patterns, were referred to as "Etheostoma cf. spectabile" because they had been viewed as related to, but distinct from, Etheostoma spectabile (orangethroat darter). This view was supported to varying degrees by DNA analysis. The somewhat informal use of taxa names with qualifying abbreviations is referred to as open nomenclature and it is not subject to strict usage codes.

In some contexts, the dagger symbol ("†") may be used before or after the binomial name to indicate that the species is extinct.


In scholarly texts, at least the first or main use of the binomial name is usually followed by the "authority" – a way of designating the scientist(s) who first published the name. The authority is written in slightly different ways in zoology and botany. For names governed by the ICZN the surname is usually written in full together with the date (normally only the year) of publication. One example of author citation of scientific name is: "Amabela Möschler, 1880." The ICZN recommends that the "original author and date of a name should be cited at least once in each work dealing with the taxon denoted by that name." For names governed by the ICNafp the name is generally reduced to a standard abbreviation and the date omitted. The International Plant Names Index maintains an approved list of botanical author abbreviations. Historically, abbreviations were used in zoology too.

When the original name is changed, e.g., the species is moved to a different genus, both codes use parentheses around the original authority; the ICNafp also requires the person who made the change to be given. In the ICNafp, the original name is then called the basionym. Some examples:

Other ranks

Binomial nomenclature, as described here, is a system for naming species. Implicitly, it includes a system for naming genera, since the first part of the name of the species is a genus name. In a classification system based on ranks, there are also ways of naming ranks above the level of genus and below the level of species. Ranks above genus (e.g., family, order, class) receive one-part names, which are conventionally not written in italics. Thus, the house sparrow, Passer domesticus, belongs to the family Passeridae. Family names are normally based on genus names, although the endings used differ between zoology and botany.

Ranks below species receive three-part names, conventionally written in italics like the names of species. There are significant differences between the ICZN and the ICNafp. In zoology, the only rank below species is subspecies and the name is written simply as three parts (a trinomen). Thus, one of the subspecies of the olive-backed pipit is Anthus hodgsoni berezowskii. In botany, there are many ranks below species and although the name itself is written in three parts, a "connecting term" (not part of the name) is needed to show the rank. Thus, the American black elder is Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis; the white-flowered form of the ivy-leaved cyclamen is Cyclamen hederifolium f. albiflorum.

See also


  1. ^ Some sources say that both John Tradescant the Younger and his father, John Tradescant the Elder, were intended by Linnaeus.
  2. ^ The ending "-on" may derive from the neuter Greek ending -ον, as in Rhodoxylon floridum, or the masculine Greek ending -ων, as in Rhodochiton atrosanguineus.
  3. ^ The modern notation was resisted by some, partly because writing names like Centaurea cyanus can suggest that cyanus is an adjective which should agree with Centaurea, i.e. that the name should be Centaurea cyana, whereas Cyanus is derived from the Greek name for the cornflower.
  4. ^ Here Amabela is the name of the genus. It is written in italic form. Followed by the last name of the scientist who discovered it (Heinrich Benno Möschler), a comma, and the year when it was published.


  1. ^ a b International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999, Chapter 2, Article 5. Principle of Binominal Nomenclature ("Article 5. Principle of Binominal Nomenclature | International Code of Zoological Nomenclature". Archived from the original on 29 March 2023. Retrieved 29 March 2023.)
  2. ^ a b International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999, Glossary – "binomen", "nomenclature, binominal" ("Glossary | International Code of Zoological Nomenclature". Archived from the original on 6 February 2023. Retrieved 29 March 2023.)
  3. ^ Busby, Arthur, III; et al. (1997). A Guide to Rocks and Fossils. p. 103.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ a b c Knapp, Sandra. "What's in a name? A history of taxonomy: Linnaeus and the birth of modern taxonomy". Natural History Museum, London. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  5. ^ Bauhin, Gaspard. "Pinax theatri botanici". Kyoto University Library. Archived from the original on 17 October 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  6. ^ See entry "binôme" Archived 6 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine in le Trésor de la langue française informatisé.
  7. ^ "Binomen". 27 August 2022. Archived from the original on 11 April 2023. Retrieved 11 April 2023.
  8. ^ Reddy, S. M. (2007). University botany: Angiosperms, plant embryology and plant physiology. New Age International. p. 34. ISBN 978-81-224-1547-6. Archived from the original on 2 February 2023. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  9. ^ Blunt, Wilfrid (2004). Linnaeus: The compleat naturalist. Frances Lincoln Ltd. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-7112-2362-2.
  10. ^ Gerard, John; Johnson, Thomas (1636). The Herball, or, Generall Historie of Plantes /gathered by John Gerarde of London, Master in Chirurgerie; very much enlarged and amended by Thomas Johnson, Citizen and Apothecarye of London. Adam Islip, Joice Norton and Richard Whitakers and the Biodiversity Heritage Library. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  11. ^ a b Polaszek, Andrew (2009). Systema naturae 250: The Linnaean ark. CRC Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-1-4200-9501-2.
  12. ^ Hyam & Pankhurst 1995, p. 502
  13. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  14. ^ Van Dyke, Fred (2008). "Contemporary Issues of the Species Concept". Conservation biology: foundations, concepts, applications. Springer. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-4020-6890-4. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  15. ^ Russell, Peter J.; Wolfe, Stephen L.; Hertz, Paul E.; Starr, Cecie (2007). "Species Concepts and Speciation". The Linnaean System of Taxonomy. Vol. 2. Cengage Learning. p. 493. ISBN 978-0-495-01033-3.
  16. ^ Darpan, Pratiyogita (2007). "General Principles of Taxonomy". Competition Science Vision. 10 (114): 764–767. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  17. ^ Stevenson, Joan C. (1991). Dictionary of concepts in physical anthropology. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-313-24756-9.
  18. ^ Dashwood, Melanie; Mathew, Brian (2005). "Hyacinthaceae – little blue bulbs (RHS Plant Trials and Awards, Bulletin Number 11)". Royal Horticultural Society. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
  19. ^ Bergmann, H. H.; Schottler, B. (2001). "Tenerife robin Erithacus (rubecula) superbus – a species of its own?". Dutch Birding. 23: 140–146. Archived from the original on 7 May 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2018 – via Issuu.
  20. ^ Michener, Charles D. (1964). "The possible use of uninominal nomenclature to increase the stability of names in biology". Systematic Zoology. 13 (4): 182–190. doi:10.2307/2411777. JSTOR 2411777.
  21. ^ Cantino, P. D.; Bryant, H. D.; de Queiroz, K.; Donoghue, M. J.; Eriksson, T.; Hillis, D. M.; Lee, M. S. Y. (1999). "Species names in phylogenetic nomenclature" (PDF). Systematic Biology. 48 (4): 790–807. doi:10.1080/106351599260012. PMID 12066299. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
  22. ^ "HemiHomonym Database". Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
  23. ^ Shipunov, Alexey (16 January 2013). "The problem of hemihomonyms and the on-line hemihomonyms database (HHDB)". Bionomina. 4 (1): 65–72. doi:10.11646/bionomina.4.1.3.
  24. ^ Simpson, Michael G. (2006). Plant Systematics. London: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-644460-5., p. 552
  25. ^ Fortey, Richard (2008), Dry Store Room No. 1: The Secret Life of the Natural History Museum, London: Harper Perennial, ISBN 978-0-00-720989-7
  26. ^ Davis, Peter H.; Heywood, Vernon H. (1965). Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. p. 8.
  27. ^ Harper, Douglas. "rhododendron". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  28. ^ ῥοδόδενδρον, ῥόδον, δένδρον. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  29. ^ Hyam & Pankhurst 1995, p. 182
  30. ^ Radio San Gabriel, "Instituto Radiofonico de Promoción Aymara" (IRPA) 1993, Republicado por Instituto de las Lenguas y Literaturas Andinas-Amazónicas (ILLLA-A) 2011, Transcripción del Vocabulario de la Lengua Aymara, P. Ludovico Bertonio 1612 (Spanish-Aymara-Aymara-Spanish dictionary)
  31. ^ Teofilo Laime Ajacopa (2007). Diccionario Bilingüe Iskay simipi yuyayk’anch (PDF). La Paz, Bolivia.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  32. ^ Hyam & Pankhurst 1995, p. 303
  33. ^ Childs, James E.; Paddock, Christopher D. (2003). "The ascendancy of Amblyomma americanum as a vector of pathogens affecting humans in the United States". Annual Review of Entomology. 48 (1): 307–337. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.48.091801.112728. PMID 12414740. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  34. ^ Hyam & Pankhurst 1995, p. 329
  35. ^ Isaak, Mark. "Curiosities of Biological Nomenclature: Puns". Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  36. ^ Geng, Bao-Yin (1985). "Huia recurvata – A New Plant from Lower Devonian of Southeastern Yunnan China". Acta Botanica Sinica (in Chinese and English). 27 (4): 419–426. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
  37. ^ Iskandar, D.; Mumpuni, D. (2004). "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Huia masonii". International Union for Conservation of Nature. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
  38. ^ Hyam & Pankhurst 1995, p. 334
  39. ^ International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999
  40. ^ McNeill et al. 2012, Article 23
  41. ^ Schmidt, Diane (2003). Guide to reference and information sources in the zoological sciences. Westport, Conn.: Libraries Unlimited. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-56308-977-0.
  42. ^ International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1961). International code of zoological nomenclature, adopted by the XV International Congress of Zoology / Code international de nomenclature zoologique, adopté par le XVe Congrès international de zoologie (in French and English) (1 ed.). London: The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. pp. 11, 148. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.50303. Archived from the original on 29 March 2023. Retrieved 29 March 2023. , p148 Glossary Archived 29 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ Sneath, P. H. A. (2003). "A short history of the Bacteriological Code". International Union of Microbiological Societies. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  44. ^ McNeill et al. 2012, Recommendation 60C
  45. ^ International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999, Chap. 7, Article 3.1.2
  46. ^ McNeill et al. 2012, Article 60.12
  47. ^ International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999, Chap. 7, Article 32.3
  48. ^ "How to Write Scientific Names of Organisms" (PDF). Competition Science Vision. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  49. ^ Tan, Hugh T.W.; Tan, Kai-xin. "Understanding and Learning Scientific Names of Species". Successful Learning, Center for Development of Teaching and Learning, National University of Singapore. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  50. ^ Johnson & Smith 1972, p. 23.
  51. ^ Gilbert-Carter, H. (1955). Glossary of the British Flora (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. xix. OCLC 559413416.
  52. ^ Silyn-Roberts, Heather (2000). Writing for Science and Engineering: Papers, Presentations and Reports. Oxford; Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-7506-4636-9.
  53. ^ McNeill et al. 2012, Recommendation 60F
  54. ^ Writing Guide: Language, Words and Format. Sydney, NSW: Macquarie University. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011.
  55. ^ "Linnaean Nomenclature of Plants, Animals, & Bacteria". Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. 2003. p. 22a – 23a. ISBN 978-0-87779-809-5.
  56. ^ Nair, P. K. Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D. (2014). Scientific Writing and Communication in Agriculture and Natural Resources. Springer International Publishing. p. 39. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-03101-9. ISBN 9783319031019. LCCN 2013953625. OCLC 881314963. S2CID 11811479. Archived from the original on 28 March 2023. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  57. ^ Jenks, Matthew A. "Plant Nomenclature". Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University. Archived from the original on 11 December 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  58. ^ Clowes, Chris. "Taxonomy – A Primer". Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  59. ^ Bengtson, P. (1988). "Open nomenclature" (PDF). Palaeontology. 31 (1): 223–227. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
  60. ^ Orihuela, J. (2013). "Fossil Cuban crow Corvus cf. nasicus from a late Quaternary cave deposit in northern Matanzas, Cuba". Journal of Caribbean Ornithology. 26: 12–16. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
  61. ^ Page, L. M.; Burr, B. M. (1991). Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. plate 52. ISBN 978-0-547-24206-4.
  62. ^ Near, T. J.; Bossu, C. M.; Bradburd, G. S.; Carlson, R. L.; Harrington, R. C.; Hollingsworth, P. R.; Keck, B. P.; Etnier, D. A. (2011). "Phylogeny and temporal diversification of darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae)". Systematic Biology. 60 (5): 565–595. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syr052. PMID 21775340.
  63. ^ International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999, Recommendation 51a.
  64. ^ Summers-Smith, J. Denis (1988). The Sparrows. illustrated by Robert Gillmor. Calton, Staffs, England: T. & A. D. Poyser. pp. 114–115. ISBN 978-0-85661-048-6.


Further reading

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Biological nomenclature.