World War II casualties

World War II deaths by country World War II deaths by theater Soviet soldiers killed during the Toropets–Kholm Offensive, January 1942. Officially, roughly 8.6 million Soviet soldiers died in the course of the war, including millions of POWs. Einsatzgruppen murder Jewish civilians outside Ivanhorod, Ukraine, 1942. Over 6 million Jews were murdered by the Nazis and their collaborators in the Holocaust. Bodies of U.S. Marines on the beach of Tarawa. The Marines secured the island after 76 hours of intense fighting. Over 1,000 American and ~4600 Japanese troops died in the fighting.

World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history. An estimated total of 70–85 million people perished, or about 3% of the estimated global population of 2.3 billion in 1940. Deaths directly caused by the war (including military and civilian fatalities) are estimated at 50–56 million, with an additional estimated 19–28 million deaths from war-related disease and famine. Civilian deaths totaled 50–55 million. Military deaths from all causes totaled 21–25 million, including deaths in captivity of about 5 million prisoners of war. More than half of the total number of casualties are accounted for by the dead of the Republic of China and of the Soviet Union. The following tables give a detailed country-by-country count of human losses. Statistics on the number of military wounded are included whenever available.

Recent historical scholarship has shed new light on the topic of Second World War casualties. Research in Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union has caused a revision of estimates of Soviet World War II fatalities. According to Russian government figures, USSR losses within postwar borders now stand at 26.6 million, including 8 to 9 million due to famine and disease. In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated Poland's dead at between 5.6 and 5.8 million. Historian Rüdiger Overmans of the Military History Research Office (Germany) published a study in 2000 estimating the German military dead and missing at 5.3 million, including 900,000 men conscripted from outside of Germany's 1937 borders, in Austria, and in east-central Europe. The Red Army claimed responsibility for the majority of Wehrmacht casualties during World War II. The People's Republic of China puts its war dead at 20 million, while the Japanese government puts its casualties due to the war at 3.1 million. An estimated 7–10 million people died in the Dutch, British, French and US colonies in South and Southeast Asia, mostly from war-related famine.

Classification of casualties

Compiling or estimating the numbers of deaths and wounded caused during wars and other violent conflicts is a controversial subject. Historians often put forward many different estimates of the numbers killed and wounded during World War II. The authors of the Oxford Companion to World War II maintain that "casualty statistics are notoriously unreliable". The table below gives data on the number of dead and military wounded for each country, along with population information to show the relative impact of losses. When scholarly sources differ on the number of deaths in a country, a range of war losses is given, in order to inform readers that the death toll is disputed. Since casualty statistics are sometimes disputed the footnotes to this article present the different estimates by official governmental sources as well as historians. Military figures include battle deaths (KIA) and personnel missing in action (MIA), as well as fatalities due to accidents, disease and deaths of prisoners of war in captivity. Civilian casualties include deaths caused by strategic bombing, Holocaust victims, German war crimes, Japanese war crimes, population transfers in the Soviet Union, Allied war crimes, and deaths due to war-related famine and disease.

The sources for the casualties of the individual countries do not use the same methods, and civilian deaths due to starvation and disease make up a large proportion of the civilian deaths in China and the Soviet Union. The losses listed here are actual deaths; hypothetical losses due to a decline in births are not included with the total dead. The distinction between military and civilian casualties caused directly by warfare and collateral damage is not always clear-cut. For states that suffered huge losses such as the Soviet Union, China, Poland, Germany, and Yugoslavia, sources can give only the total estimated population loss caused by the war and a rough estimate of the breakdown of deaths caused by military activity, crimes against humanity and war-related famine. The casualties listed here include 19 to 25 million war-related famine deaths in the USSR, China, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, and India that are often omitted from other compilations of World War II casualties.

The footnotes give a detailed breakdown of the casualties and their sources, including data on the number of wounded where reliable sources are available.

Human losses by country

Total deaths by country

Death toll of World War II & military wounded by country
Country Total population
1/1/1939
Military
deaths from all causes
Civilian deaths due to
military activity and crimes against humanity
Civilian deaths due to
war-related famine and disease
Total
deaths
Deaths as % of
1939 population
Average Deaths as % of
1939 population
Military
wounded
Albania Albania A 1,073,000 30,000 30,000 2.80 2.80 NA
 Australia B 6,968,000 39,700 700 40,400 0.58 0.58 39,803
Nazi Germany Austria (Unified with Germany) C 6,653,000 Included with Germany Included with Germany (See table below.) S2 (See table below.) S2 Included with Germany
 Belgium D 8,387,000 12,000 76,000 88,000 1.05 1.05 55,513
Brazil Brazil E 40,289,000 1,000 1,000 2,000 0.00 0.00 4,222
 Bulgaria F 6,458,000 18,500 3,000 21,500 0.33 0.33 21,878
Burma (British colony) G 16,119,000 2,600 250,000 to 1,000,000 252,600 to 1,000,000 1.57 to 6.2 3.89 NA
 Canada H 11,267,000 42,000 1,600 43,600 0.38 0.38 53,174
 China I (1937–1945) 517,568,000 3,000,000
to 3,750,000+
7,357,000
to 8,191,000
5,000,000
to 10,000,000
15,000,000
to 20,000,000
2.90 to 3.86 3.38 1,761,335
 Cuba J 4,235,000 100 100 0.00 0.00 NA
 Czechoslovakia (in postwar 1945–1992 borders) K 14,612,000 35,000 to 46,000
294,000 to
320,000
340,000 to 355,000 2.33 to 2.43 2.38 8,017
 Denmark L 3,795,000 6,000 6,000 0.16 0.16 2,000
 Dutch East Indies M 69,435,000 11,500 300,000 2,400,000
to 4,000,000
3,000,000
to 4,000,000
4.3 to 5.76 5.03 NA
Egypt Egypt MA 16,492,000 1,100 1,100 0.00 0.00 NA
 Estonia (within 1939 borders) N 1,134,000 34,000 (in both Soviet & German armed forces) 49,000 83,000 7.3 7.3 NA
Ethiopia Ethiopia O 17,700,000 15,000 85,000 100,000 0.56 0.56 NA
 Finland P 3,700,000 94,700 2,100 96,800 2.62 2.62 197,000
 France Q (including colonies) 41,680,000 210,000 390,000 600,000 1.44 1.44 390,000
 French Indochina R 24,664,000 1,000,000
to 2,000,000
1,000,000
to 2,200,000
4.05 to 8.11 6.08 NA
 Germany S 69,300,000 4,440,000 to 5,318,000 1,500,000
to 3,000,000 S1
6,900,000
to 7,400,000
(See table below.) S2 (See table below.) S2 7,300,000
 Greece T 7,222,000 35,100 171,800 300,000
to 600,000
507,000
to 807,000
7.02 to 11.17 9.095 47,290
United States Guam TA 22,800 1,000
to 2,000
1,000
to 2,000
4.39 to 8.77 6.58 NA
 Hungary U (figures in 1938 borders not including territories annexed in 1938–41) 9,129,000 200,000 264,000
to 664,000
464,000
to 864,000
5.08 to 9.46 7.27 89,313
Iceland Iceland V 118,900 200 200 0.17 0.17 NA
 India W 377,800,000 87,000 2,100,000
to 3,000,000
2,200,000
to 3,087,000
0.58 0.58 64,354
 Iraq Y 3,698,000 500 200 700 0.01 0.01 NA
 Ireland Z 2,960,000 5,000 Irish volunteers' deaths included with UK Armed Forces 100 5,100 0.00 0.17 NA
 Italy (in postwar 1947 borders) AA 44,394,000 319,200 to 341,000 Italian nationals and c. 20,000 Africans conscripted by Italy 153,200 492,400 to 514,000 1.11 to 1.16 1.135 225,000 to 320,000 (incomplete data)
 Japan AB 71,380,000 2,100,000 to
2,300,000
550,000 to
800,000
2,500,000
to 3,100,000
3.50 to 4.34 3.92 326,000
Empire of Japan Korea (Japanese colony) AC 24,326,000 Included with Japanese military 483,000
to 533,000
483,000
to 533,000
1.99 to 2.19 2.09 NA
 Latvia (within 1939 borders) AD 1,994,500 30,000 (in both Soviet and German Armies) 220,000 250,000 12.5 12.5 NA
 Lithuania (within 1939 borders) AE 2,575,000 25,000 (in both Soviet and German Armies) 345,000 370,000 14.36 14.36 NA
 Luxembourg AF 290,000 2,905 Included with German & Allied military 4,201 7,106 2.45 2.45 NA
United Kingdom Malaya & Singapore AG 5,118,000 100,000 100,000 1.95 1.95 NA
Malta Malta (British) AH 269,000 Included with U.K. 1,500 1,500 0.55 0.55 NA
 Mexico AI 19,320,000 100 100 0.00 0.00 NA
 Mongolia AJ 819,000 300 300 0.04 0.04 NA
United Kingdom Nauru (Australian) AK 3,400 500 500 14.7 14.7 NA
 Nepal AL 6,087,000 Included with British Indian Army NA
 Netherlands AM 8,729,000 6,700 187,300 16,000 250,000 2.86 2.86 2,860
 Newfoundland (British) AN 320,000 1,100 (included with the U.K. & Canada) 100 1,200 0.3 0.3 (included with the/ U.K. & Canada)
 New Zealand AO 1,629,000 11,700 11,700 0.72 0.72 19,314
 Norway AP 2,945,000 2,000 8,200 10,200 0.35 0.35 364
Australia Papua and New Guinea (Australian) AQ 1,292,000 15,000 15,000 1.16 1.16 NA
 Philippines (U.S. Territory) AR 16,000,303 62,500 164,000 to 1,000,000 336,000 557,000 to 1,411,938 3.48 to 8.82 6.15 NA
 Poland (within 1939 borders, including territories annexed by USSR) AS 34,849,000 240,000 5,620,000
to 5,820,000
5,900,000
to 6,000,000
16.93 to 17.22 17.075 766,606
 Portuguese Timor AT 480,000 40,000
to 70,000
40,000
to 70,000
8.33 to 14.58 11.455 NA
 Romania (in postwar 1945 borders) AU 15,970,000 300,000 200,000 500,000 3.13 3.13 332,769
Belgium Ruanda-Urundi (Belgian) AV 3,800,000 36,000 and 50,000 36,000–50,000 0.09–1.3 0.695 NA
 South Africa AW 10,160,000 11,900 11,900 0.12 0.12 14,363
South Seas Mandate (Japanese Colony) AX 127,000 10,000 10,000 7.87 7.87
 Soviet Union (within 1946–91 borders including annexed territories,) AY 188,793,000 8,668,000 to 11,400,000 4,500,000 to 10,000,000 8,000,000 to 9,000,000 20,000,000 to 27,000,000 (See table below.) AY4 (See table below.) AY4 14,685,593
 Spain AZ 25,637,000 Included with the German Army Included with France (See footnote.) NA
 Sweden BA 6,341,000 100 2,000 2,100 0.03 0.03 NA
  Switzerland BB 4,210,000 100 100 0.00 0.00 NA
 Thailand BC 15,023,000 5,600 2,000 7,600 0.05 0.05 NA
 Turkey BD 17,370,000 200 200 0.00 0.00 NA
 United Kingdom BE including Crown Colonies 47,760,000 383,700 67,200 450,900 0.94 0.94 376,239
 United States BF 131,028,000 407,300 BF1 12,100 BF2 419,400 0.32 0.32 671,801
 Yugoslavia BG 15,490,000 300,000
to 446,000
581,000 to 1,400,000 1,027,000 to 1,700,000 6.63 to 10.97 8.8 425,000
Other states and territories BH 300,000,000 NA
Approx. totals 2,300,000,000 21,000,000
to 25,500,000
29,000,000
to 30,500,000
19,000,000
to 28,000,000
70,000,000
to 85,000,000
3.0 to 3.7 3.35 NA

Soviet Union

The estimated breakdown for each Soviet republic of total war dead^AY4

Soviet Republic Population 1940
(within 1946–91 borders)
Military deaths Civilian deaths due to
military activity and
crimes against humanity
Civilian deaths due to war
related famine and disease
Total Deaths as % of
1940 population
 Armenia 1,320,000 150,000 30,000 180,000 13.6%
 Azerbaijan 3,270,000 210,000 90,000 300,000 9.1%
 Belarus 9,050,000 620,000 1,360,000 310,000 2,290,000 25.3%
 Estonia 1,050,000 30,000 50,000 80,000 7.6%
 Georgia 3,610,000 190,000 110,000 300,000 8.3%
 Kazakhstan 6,150,000 310,000 350,000 660,000 10.7%
 Kyrgyzstan 1,530,000 70,000 50,000 120,000 7.8%
 Latvia 1,890,000 30,000 190,000 40,000 260,000 13.7%
 Lithuania 2,930,000 25,000 275,000 75,000 375,000 12.7%
 Moldova 2,470,000 50,000 75,000 45,000 170,000 6.9%
 Russia 110,100,000 6,750,000 4,100,000 3,100,000 13,950,000 12.7%
 Tajikistan 1,530,000 50,000 70,000 120,000 7.8%
 Turkmenistan 1,300,000 70,000 30,000 100,000 7.7%
 Ukraine 41,340,000 1,650,000 3,700,000 1,500,000 6,850,000 16.3%
 Uzbekistan 6,550,000 330,000 220,000 550,000 8.4%
Unidentified 165,000 130,000 295,000
Total USSR 194,090,000 10,600,000 10,000,000 6,000,000 26,600,000 13.7%

The source of the figures is Vadim Erlikman. Erlikman, a Russian historian, notes that these figures are his estimates.

Nazi Germany

Human losses of the Third Reich in World War II (included in above figures of total war dead). A detailed description is given in the footnotes for Germany and Austria.^S2
Country Population
1939
Military
deaths
Civilian deaths due to
Allied Strategic Bombing
Civilian deaths due to
Nazi persecution
Civilian deaths due to Expulsion of Germans Total
deaths
Deaths as
% of 1939
population
Austria 6,653,000 250,000 to 261,000 24,000 100,000 370,000 5.56
Germany (within 1937 borders) 69,300,000 3,760,000 to 4,456,000 353,000 (1942 borders) to 410,000 300,000 to 500,000 400,000 to 1,225,000 5,700,000 8.23
Foreign nationals of German ancestry in Eastern Europe 7,423,000 430,000 to 538,000 200,000 to 886,000 738,000 to 1,316,000 9.96 to 17.76
Foreign nationals in Western Europe 215,000 63,000 63,000 29.3
Approx. Totals 83,500,000 4,440,000 to 5,318,000 353,000 to 434,000 400,000 to 600,000 600,000 to 2,111,000 6,900,000 to 7,400,000 8.26 to 8.86

United States

Estimated breakdown for each US state and territory of total war dead

This table displays the number of people who are believed to have died in the United States by state and territory. This list includes those who died at sea.

USA State Population 1940
Military deaths Civilian deaths Total Deaths as % of
1940 population
 Alabama 2,832,961 5,114 5,114 0.180%
 Alaska 72,524 91 10 101 0.139%
 Arizona 499,261 1,613 736 2,349 0.470%
 Arkansas 1,949,387 3,814 3,814 0.195%
 California 6,907,397 17,022 17,022 0.246%
 Colorado 1,123,296 2,697 2,697 0.240%
 Connecticut 1,709,242 4,347 4,347 0.254%
 Delaware 246,505 579 579 0.234%
 District of Columbia 663,091 3,029 3,029 0.456%
 Florida 1,897,414 3,540 3,540 0.186%
 Georgia 3,123,723 5,701 5,701 0.182%
 Hawaii 422,770 689 68 757 0.179%
 Idaho 524,873 1,419 1,419 0.270%
 Illinois 7,897,241 18,601 18,601 0.235%
 Indiana 3,427,796 8,131 8,131 0.237%
 Iowa 2,538,268 5,633 5,633 0.221%
 Kansas 1,801,028 4,526 4,526 0.251%
 Kentucky 2,845,627 6,802 6,802 0.239%
 Louisiana 2,363,516 3,964 3,964 0.167%
 Maine 847,226 2,156 2,156 0.254%
 Maryland 1,821,244 4,375 4,375 0.240%
 Massachusetts 4,316,721 10,033 10,033 0.232%
 Michigan 5,256,106 12,885 12,885 0.245%
 Minnesota 2,792,300 6,462 6,462 0.231%
 Mississippi 2,183,796 3,555 3,555 0.162%
 Missouri 3,784,664 8,003 8,003 0.211%
 Montana 559,456 1,553 1,553 0.277%
 Nebraska 1,315,834 2,976 2,976 0.226%
 Nevada 110,247 545 545 0.494%
 New Hampshire 491,524 1,203 1,203 0.244%
 New Jersey 4,160,165 10,372 10,372 0.249%
 New Mexico 531,818 2,032 317 2,349 0.441%
 New York 13,479,142 31,215 31,215 0.231%
 North Carolina 3,571,623 7,109 7,109 0.199%
 North Dakota 641,935 1,626 1,626 0.253%
 Ohio 6,907,612 16,828 16,828 0.243%
 Oklahoma 2,336,434 5,474 5,474 0.234%
 Oregon 1,089,684 2,835 6 2,841 0.260%
 Pennsylvania 9,900,180 26,554 26,554 0.268%
 Rhode Island 713,346 1,669 1,669 0.233%
 South Carolina 1,899,804 3,423 3,423 0.180%
 South Dakota 642,961 1,426 1,426 0.221%
 Tennessee 2,915,841 6,528 6,528 0.223%
 Texas 6,414,824 15,764 15,764 0.245%
 Utah 550,310 1,450 1,450 0.263%
 Vermont 359,231 874 874 0.243%
 Virginia 2,677,773 6,007 6,007 0.224%
 Washington 1,736,191 3,941 3,941 0.226%
 West Virginia 1,901,974 4,865 4,865 0.255%
 Wisconsin 3,137,587 7,038 7,038 0.224%
 Wyoming 250,742 652 652 0.260%
 Puerto Rico 1,869,255 368 368 0.019%
 Panama Canal Zone 51,827 21 21 0.040%
Unidentified 11,072 2,587
Total US 132,164,569 405,000 to 416,800 11,200 to 15,000 418,500 to 420,000 0.32%

Japanese Empire

Human losses of the Japanese Empire in World War II (included in above figures of total war dead).
Country Population

1939

Military

deaths

Civilian deaths due to

Allied attacks

Civilian deaths due to

Japanese persecution

Total

deaths

Deaths as

% of 1939 population

Philippines 16,000,303 489,600 500,000
Japan 71,900,000 103,900 330,000 to 900,000 2,600,000 to 3,100,000
China 200,000,000 455,700 7,500,000 20,000,000
Pacific 127,000 247,200
Burma and India 393,919,000 164,500 250,000 to 1,000,000 1,500,000 to 2,500,000
New Guinea 1,292,000 127,600 15,000
Smaller fronts 404,800
Other 444,878
Approx. Totals 304,119,000 2,500,000 730,000 3,100,000

Holocaust deaths

Included in the figures of total war dead for each country are victims of the Holocaust.

Jewish deaths

The Holocaust is the term generally used to describe the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II. Martin Gilbert estimates 5.7 million (78%) of the 7.3 million Jews in German-occupied Europe were Holocaust victims. Estimates of Holocaust deaths range between 4.9 and 5.9 million Jews.

Statistical breakdown of Jewish dead

The figures for the pre-war Jewish population and deaths in the table below are from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. The low, high and average percentage figures for deaths of the pre-war population have been added.

Country Pre-war Jewish population in 1933 Low estimate deaths High estimate deaths Low % High % Average %
Austria Austria 191,000 (see footnote) 50,000 65,000 26.2% 34.0% 30.1%
Belgium Belgium 60,000 (see footnote) 25,000 29,000 41.7% 48.3% 45.0%
Czech Republic Czech Republic 92,000 77,000 78,300 83.7% 85.1% 84.4%
Denmark Denmark 8,000 60 116 0.8% 1.5% 1.1%
Estonia Estonia 4,600 1,500 2,000 32.6% 43.5% 38.0%
France France 260,000 (see footnote) 75,000 77,000 28.8% 29.6% 29.2%
Germany Germany 566,000 (see footnote) 135,000 142,000 23.9% 25.1% 24.5%
Greece Greece 73,000 59,000 67,000 80.8% 91.8% 86.3%
Hungary Hungary (borders 1940) 725,000 502,000 569,000 69.2% 78.5% 73.9%
Italy Italy 48,000 6,500 9,000 13.5% 18.8% 16.1%
Latvia Latvia 95,000 70,000 72,000 73.7% 75.8% 74.7%
Lithuania Lithuania 155,000 130,000 143,000 83.9% 92.3% 88.1%
Luxembourg Luxembourg 3,500 1,000 2,000 28.6% 57.1% 42.9%
Netherlands Netherlands 140,000 (see footnote) 100,000 105,000 72.8% 74.3% 71.0%
Norway Norway 1,700 800 800 47.1% 47.1% 47.1%
Poland Poland (borders 1939) 3,250,000 2,700,000 3,000,000 83.1% 92.3% 87.7%
Romania Romania (borders 1940) 441,000 121,000 287,000 27.4% 65.1% 46.3%
Slovakia Slovakia 89,000 60,000 71,000 67.4% 79.8% 73.6%
Soviet Union Soviet Union (borders 1939) 2,825,000 700,000 1,100,000 24.8% 38.9% 31.9%
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 68,000 56,000 65,000 82.4% 95.6% 89.0%
Total 9,067,000 4,869,860 5,894,716 50.4% (avg.) 59.7% (avg.) 55.1% (avg.)
Non-Jews persecuted and killed by Nazi and Nazi-affiliated forces

Some scholars maintain that the definition of the Holocaust should also include the other victims persecuted and killed by the Nazis.

The following figures are from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, the authors maintain that "statistics on Gypsy losses are especially unreliable and controversial. These figures (cited below) are based on necessarily rough estimates".

Country Pre-war Roma population Low estimate victims High estimate victims
Austria 11,200 6,800 8,250
Belgium 600 350 500
Czech Republic 13,000 5,000 6,500
Estonia 1,000 500 1,000
France 40,000 15,150 15,150
Germany 20,000 15,000 15,000
Greece ? 50 50
Hungary 100,000 1,000 28,000
Italy 25,000 1,000 1,000
Latvia 5,000 1,500 2,500
Lithuania 1,000 500 1,000
Luxembourg 200 100 200
Netherlands 500 215 500
Poland 50,000 8,000 35,000
Romania 300,000 19,000 36,000
Slovakia 80,000 400 10,000
Soviet Union (borders 1939) 200,000 30,000 35,000
Yugoslavia 100,000 26,000 90,000
Total 947,500 130,565 285,650

German war crimes

During World War II, the German military helped fulfill Nazism's racial, political, and territorial ambitions. Long after the war, a myth persisted claiming the German military (or Wehrmacht) was not involved in the Holocaust and other crimes associated with Nazi genocidal policy. This belief is untrue. The German military participated in many aspects of the Holocaust: in supporting Hitler, in the use of forced labor, and in the mass murder of Jews and other groups targeted by the Nazis.

The military's complicity extended not only to the generals and upper leadership but also to the rank and file. In addition, the war and genocidal policy were inextricably linked. The German army (or Heer) was the most complicit as a result of being on the ground in Germany's eastern campaigns, but all branches participated.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

Soviet POWs held by the Nazis in Mauthausen concentration camp. It is estimated that at least 3.3 million Soviet POWs died in German custody.

Nazi Germany ordered, organized and condoned a substantial number of war crimes in World War II. The most notable of these is the Holocaust in which millions of Jews, Poles, and Romani were systematically murdered or died from abuse and mistreatment. Millions also died as a result of other German actions.

While the Nazi Party's own SS forces (in particular the SS-Totenkopfverbände, Einsatzgruppen and Waffen-SS) of Nazi Germany was the organization most responsible for the genocidal killing of the Holocaust, the regular armed forces represented by the Wehrmacht committed war crimes of their own, particularly on the Eastern Front in the war against the Soviet Union.

Japanese war crimes

Included with total war dead are victims of Japanese war crimes.

R. J. Rummel

R. J. Rummel estimates the civilian victims of Japanese democide at 5,964,000. Detailed by country:

Rummel estimates POW deaths in Japanese custody at 539,000. Detailed by country:

Werner Gruhl

Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian deaths at 20,365,000.

Detailed by country

Gruhl estimates POW deaths in Japanese captivity at 331,584.

Detailed by country

Out of 60,000 Indian Army POWs taken at the Fall of Singapore, 11,000 died in captivity. There were 14,657 deaths among the total 130,895 western civilians interned by the Japanese due to famine and disease.

Oppression in the Soviet Union

Polish military officers executed by the Soviet NKVD in the Katyn massacre, exhumation photo taken by the Polish Red Cross delegation in 1943

The total war dead in the USSR includes about 1 million victims of Stalin's regime. The number of deaths in the Gulag labor camps increased as a result of wartime overcrowding and food shortages. The Stalin regime deported the entire populations of ethnic minorities considered to be potentially disloyal. Since 1990 Russian scholars have been given access to the Soviet-era archives and have published data on the numbers of people executed and those who died in Gulag labor camps and prisons. The Russian scholar Viktor Zemskov puts the death toll from 1941 to 1945 at about 1 million based on data from the Soviet archives. The Soviet-era archive figures on the Gulag labor camps has been the subject of a vigorous academic debate outside Russia since their publication in 1991. J. Arch Getty and Stephen G. Wheatcroft maintain that Soviet-era figures more accurately detail the victims of the Gulag labor camp system in the Stalin era. Robert Conquest and Steven Rosefielde have disputed the accuracy of the data from the Soviet archives, maintaining that the demographic data and testimonials by survivors of the Gulag labor camps indicate a higher death toll. Rosefielde posits that the release of the Soviet Archive figures is disinformation generated by the modern KGB. Rosefielde maintains that the data from the Soviet archives is incomplete; for example, he pointed out that the figures do not include the 22,000 victims of the Katyn massacre. Rosefielde's demographic analysis puts the number of excess deaths due to Soviet repression at 2,183,000 in 1939–40 and 5,458,000 from 1941 to 1945. Michael Haynes and Rumy Husun accept the figures from the Soviet archives as being an accurate tally of Stalin's victims, they maintain that the demographic data depicts an underdeveloped Soviet economy and the losses in World War Two rather than indicating a higher death toll in the Gulag labor camps.

In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated 150,000 Polish citizens were killed due to Soviet repression. Since the collapse of the USSR, Polish scholars have been able to do research in the Soviet archives on Polish losses during the Soviet occupation. Andrzej Paczkowski puts the number of Polish deaths at 90,000–100,000 of the 1.0 million persons deported and 30,000 executed by the Soviets. In 2005 Tadeusz Piotrowski estimated the death toll in Soviet hands at 350,000.

The Estonian State Commission for the Examination of Repressive Policies Carried out During the Occupations put civilian deaths due to the Soviet occupation in 1940–1941 at 33,900 including (7,800 deaths) of arrested people, (6,000) deportee deaths, (5,000) evacuee deaths, (1,100) people gone missing and (14,000) conscripted for forced labor. After the reoccupation by the USSR, 5,000 Estonians died in Soviet prisons during 1944–45.

The following is a summary of the data from the Soviet archives:
Reported deaths for the years 1939–1945 1,187,783, including: judicial executions 46,350; deaths in Gulag labor camps 718,804; deaths in labor colonies and prisons 422,629.

Deported to special settlements: (figures are for deportations to Special Settlements only, not including those executed, sent to Gulag labor camps or conscripted into the Soviet Army. Nor do the figures include additional deportations after the war).
Deported from annexed territories 1940–41 380,000 to 390,000 persons, including: Poland 309–312,000; Lithuania 17,500; Latvia 17,000; Estonia 6,000; Moldova 22,842. In August 1941, 243,106 Poles living in the Special Settlements were amnestied and released by the Soviets.
Deported during the War 1941–1945 about 2.3 million persons of Soviet ethnic minorities including: Soviet Germans 1,209,000; Finns 9,000; Karachays 69,000; Kalmyks 92,000; Chechens and Ingush 479,000; Balkars 37,000; Crimean Tatars 191,014; Meskhetian Turks 91,000; Greeks, Bulgarians and Armenians from Crimea 42,000; Ukrainian OUN members 100,000; Poles 30,000.
A total of 2,230,500 persons were living in the settlements in October 1945 and 309,100 deaths were reported in special settlements for the years 1941–1948.

Russian sources list Axis prisoner of war deaths of 580,589 in Soviet captivity based on data in the Soviet archives (Germany 381,067; Hungary 54,755; Romania 54,612; Italy 27,683; Finland 403, and Japan 62,069). However, some western scholars estimate the total at between 1.7 and 2.3 million.

Military casualties by branch of service

Country Branch of service Number served Killed/missing Wounded Prisoners of war Captured Percent killed
Germany Army 13,600,000 4,202,000 30.9
Germany Air Force (including infantry units) 2,500,000 433,000 17.3
Germany Navy 1,200,000 138,000 11.5
Germany U-boat (included with Navy) (40,900) (28,000) 5,000 68.5
Germany Waffen SS 900,000 314,000 34.9
Germany Volkssturm and other Paramilitary Forces 231,000
Germany Total (incl. conscripted foreigners) 18,200,000 5,318,000 6,035,000 11,100,000 29.2
Japan Army (1937–1945) 6,300,000 1,326,076 85,600 30,000 24.2
Japan Navy (1941–1945) 2,100,000 414,879 8,900 10,000 19.8
Japan POW dead after surrender 381,000
Japan Imperial Japan Total 8,400,000 2,121,955 94,500 40,000 25.3
Italy Army 3,040,000 246,432 8.1
Italy Navy 259,082 31,347 12.0
Italy Air Force 130,000 13,210 10.2
Italy Partisan forces 80,000 to 250,000 35,828 14 to 44
Italy RSI forces 520,000 13,021 to 35,000 2.5 to 6.7
Italy Total Italian Forces 3,430,000 319,207 to 341,000 320,000 1,300,000 9.3 to 9.9
Soviet Union (1939–40) All branches of service 136,945 205,924
Soviet Union (1941–45) All branches of service 34,476,700 8,668,400 14,685,593 4,050,000 25.1
Soviet Union Conscripted Reservists not yet in active service (see note below) 500,000
Soviet Union Civilians in POW camps (see note below) 1,000,000 1,750,000
Soviet Union Paramilitary and Soviet partisan units 400,000
Soviet Union Total Soviet Forces 34,476,700 10,725,345 14,915,517 5,750,000 31.1
British Empire and Commonwealth All branches of service 17,843,000 580,497 475,000 318,000 3.3
United States Army 11,260,000 318,274 565,861 124,079 2.8
United States Air Force (included with Army) (3,400,000) (88,119) (17,360) 2.5
United States Navy 4,183,446 62,614 37,778 3,848 1.5
United States Maritime Service 215,000 9,400 12,000 663 4.5
United States Marine Corps 669,100 24,511 68,207 2,274 3.7
United States Coast Guard 241,093 1,917 0.8
United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps 2,600 8 0.3
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps 3
United States Total U.S. Armed Forces 16,353,639 407,316 671,846 130,201 2.5
Germany
  1. The number killed in action was 2,303,320; died of wounds, disease or accidents 500,165; 11,000 sentenced to death by court martial; 2,007,571 missing in action or unaccounted for after the war; 25,000 suicides; 12,000 unknown; 459,475 confirmed POW deaths, of whom 77,000 were in the custody of the U.S., UK and France; and 363,000 in Soviet custody. POW deaths includes 266,000 in the post-war period after June 1945, primarily in Soviet captivity.
  2. Rüdiger Overmans writes "It seems entirely plausible, while not provable, that one half of the 1.5 million missing on the eastern front were killed in action, the other half (700,000) having died in Soviet custody".
  3. Soviet sources list the deaths of 474,967 of the 2,652,672 German Armed Forces POW taken in the war.
USSR
  1. Estimated total Soviet military war dead in 1941–45 on the Eastern Front (World War II) including missing in action, POWs and Soviet partisans range from 8.6 to 10.6 million. There were an additional 127,000 war dead in 1939–40 during the Winter War with Finland.
  2. The official figures for military war dead and missing in 1941–45 are 8,668,400 comprising 6,329,600 combat related deaths, 555,500 non-combat deaths. 500,000 missing in action and 1,103,300 POW dead and another 180,000 liberated POWs who most likely emigrated to other countries. Figures include Navy losses of 154,771. Non-combat deaths include 157,000 sentenced to death by court martial.
  3. Casualties in 1939–40 include the following dead and missing: Battle of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 (8,931), Invasion of Poland of 1939 (1,139), Winter War with Finland (1939–40) (126,875).
  4. The number of wounded includes 2,576,000 permanently disabled.
  5. The official Russian figure for total POW held by the Germans is 4,059,000; the number of Soviet POW who survived the war was 2,016,000, including 180,000 who most likely emigrated to other countries, and an additional 939,700 POW and MIA who were redrafted as territory was liberated. This leaves 1,103,000 POW dead. However, western historians put the number of POW held by the Germans at 5.7 million and about 3 million as dead in captivity (in the official Russian figures 1.1 million are military POW and remaining balance of about 2 million are included with civilian war dead).
  6. Conscripted reservists is an estimate of men called up, primarily in 1941, who were killed in battle or died as POWs before being listed on active strength. Soviet and Russian sources classify these losses as civilian deaths.
British Commonwealth
  1. Number served: UK and Crown Colonies (5,896,000); India-(British colonial administration) (2,582,000), Australia (993,000); Canada (1,100,000); New Zealand (295,000); South Africa (250,000).
  2. Total war related deaths reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission: UK and Crown Colonies (383,898); India-(British colonial administration) (87,026), Australia (40,696); Canada (45,388); New Zealand (11,926); South Africa (11,914).
  3. Total military dead for the United Kingdom alone (according to preliminary 1945 figures): 264,443. Royal Navy (50,758); British Army (144,079); Royal Air Force (69,606).
  4. Wounded: UK and Crown Colonies (284,049); India-(British colonial administration) (64,354), Australia (39,803); Canada (53,174); New Zealand (19,314); South Africa (14,363).
  5. Prisoner of war: UK and Crown Colonies (180,488); India-(British colonial administration) (79,481); Australia (26,358); South Africa (14,750); Canada (9,334); New Zealand (8,415).
  6. The Debt of Honour Register from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars.
U.S.
  1. Battle deaths (including Army POWs who died in captivity, does not include those who died of disease and accidents) were 293,121: Army 234,874 (including Army Air Forces 52,173); Navy/Coast Guard 38,257; Marine Corps 19,990 (185,179 deaths occurred in the European/Atlantic theater of operations and 107,903 deaths occurred in Asia/Pacific theater of operations).
  2. During World War II, 14,059 American POWs died in enemy captivity throughout the war (12,935 held by Japan and 1,124 held by Germany).
  3. During World War II, 1.2 million African Americans served in the U.S. Armed Forces and 708 were killed in action. 350,000 American women served in the Armed Forces during World War II and 16 were killed in action. During World War II, 26,000 Japanese-Americans served in the Armed Forces and over 800 were killed in action.

Commonwealth military casualties

The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) Annual Report 2014–2015 is the source of the military dead for the British Empire. The war dead totals listed in the report are based on the research by the CWGC to identify and commemorate Commonwealth war dead. The statistics tabulated by the CWGC are representative of the number of names commemorated for all servicemen/women of the Armed Forces of the Commonwealth and former UK Dependencies, whose death was attributable to their war service. Some auxiliary and civilian organizations are also accorded war grave status if death occurred under certain specified conditions. For the purposes of CWGC the dates of inclusion for Commonwealth War Dead are 3 September 1939 to 31 December 1947.

See also

Footnotes

^A  Albania

^B  Australia

^C  Austria

^D  Belgium

^E  Brazil

^F  Bulgaria

^G  Burma

^H  Canada

^I  China Sources for total Chinese war dead are divergent and range from 10 to 20 million as detailed below.

^J  Cuba

^K  Czechoslovakia

^L  Denmark

^M  Dutch East Indies

^MA  Egypt

^N  Estonia

^O  Ethiopia

^P  Finland

^Q  France

^R  French Indochina

^S  Germany The following notes summarize German casualties, the details are presented in German casualties in World War II.

German population

Total German war dead

German military casualties

Civilian Casualties

  1. ^S2  German civilian casualties are combined from (a) air raid dead, (b) racial, religious and political persecution and (c) casualties due to expulsion of the Germans from east-central Europe: (a) Official German and Austrian sources from the 1950s cite 434,000 air raid dead (410,000 in Germany, 24,000 in) Austria The figure cited by Overy (2013) is 353,000 air raid dead. (b) The number of victims of Nazi persecution in Germany and Austria (victims of the Nazi euthanasia program) is estimated at close to 400,000 (300,000 in Germany, 100,000 in Austria). According to the German government the euthanasia accounted for an additional 200,000 victims. (c) The number of victims of the flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50) is contentious. Estimates in the 1960s cited a total of 2,111,000 deaths, and the German government as of 2005 still maintained a number of "ca. 2 million". Direct civilian deaths due to the expulsion of Germans is estimated at 600,000 by the German Federal Archive (1974) and at 500,000 to 600,000 by Haar (2009). The substantial difference of close to 1.5 million comprises people whose fate is uncertain in the reported German statistics. The German government maintains that these deaths are due to famine and disease during the flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50) This was disputed by historian Ingo Haar who maintains that the difference classified as missing is due to a decline in births, the assimilation of ethnic Germans in Eastern Europe after the war, the understatement of military casualties and murdered Jews.

Civilian casualties in air raids

    1- The summary report of September 30, 1945 put total casualties for the entire period of the war at 305,000 killed and 780,000 wounded.
    2- The section Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy of October 31, 1945 put the losses at 375,000 killed and 625,000 wounded.
    3- The section The Effect of Bombing on Health and Medical Care in Germany of January 1947 made a preliminary calculated estimate of air raid dead at 422,000. Regarding overall losses, they concluded that "It was further estimated that an additional number, approximately 25% of known deaths in 1944–45, were still unrecovered and unrecorded. With an addition of this estimate of 1944–45 unrecorded deaths, the final estimation gave in round numbers a half a million German civilians killed by Allied aerial attacks."

Civilians killed in 1945 military campaign

Deaths due to Nazi political, racial and religious persecution

Expulsion and flight of ethnic Germans The following notes summarize German expulsion casualties, the details are presented in the flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950), the forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union' and the Demographic estimates of the flight and expulsion of Germans. The figures for these losses are currently disputed, estimates of the total deaths range from 500,000 to 2,000,000. The death toll attributable to the flight and expulsions was estimated at 2.2 million by the West German government in 1958. German government reports which were released to the public in 1987 and 1989 have caused some historians in Germany to put the actual total at 500,000 to 600,000. English language sources put the death toll at 2 to 3 million based on the West German government statistical analysis of the 1950s.

German government figures of 2.0 to 2.5 million civilian deaths due to expulsions have been disputed by scholars since the publication of the results of the German church search service survey and the report by the German Federal Archive.

Post war increase in natural deaths

^T  Greece

^TA  Guam

^U  Hungary

^V  Iceland

^W  India

Bengal famine of 1943

^Y  Iraq

^Z  Ireland

^AA  Italy

           Military war dead
           Confirmed dead were 159,957 (92,767 pre-armistice, 67,090 post armistice)
           Missing and presumed dead(including POWs) were 131,419 (111,579 pre-armistice, 19,840 post armistice)
           Losses by branch of service: Army 201,405; Navy 22,034; Air Force 9,096; Colonial Forces 354; Chaplains 91; Fascist militia
           10,066; Paramilitary 3,252; not indicated 45,078.
           Military Losses by theatre of war: Italy 74,725 (37,573 post armistice); France 2,060 (1,039 post armistice);
           Germany 25,430 (24,020 post armistice); Greece, Albania, and Yugoslavia 49,459 (10,090 post armistice);
           USSR 82,079 (3,522 post armistice); Africa 22,341 (1,565 post armistice), at sea 28,438 (5,526 post armistice);
           other and unknown 6,844 (3,695 post armistice).

^AB  Japan

Military dead

             Key: Location, Army dead, Navy dead, (Total dead)
             Japan Proper: 58,100, 45,800, (103,900)
             Bonin Islands: 2,700, 12,500, (15,200)
             Okinawa: 67,900, 21,500, (89,400)
             Formosa (Taiwan): 28,500, 10,600, (39,100)
             Korea: 19,600, 6,900, (26,500)
             Sakhalin, the Aleutian, and Kuril Islands: 8,200, 3,200, (11,400)
             Manchuria: 45,900, 800, (46,700)
             China (inc. Hong Kong): 435,600, 20,100, (455,700)
             Siberia: 52,300, 400, (52,700)
             Central Pacific: 95,800, 151,400, (247,200)
             Philippines: 377,500, 121,100, (498,600)
             French Indochina: 7,900, 4,500, (12,400)
             Thailand: 6,900, 100, (7,000)
             Burma (inc. India): 163,000, 1,500, (164,500)
             Malaya & Singapore: 8,500, 2,900, (11,400)
             Andaman & Nicobar Islands: 900, 1,500, (2,400)
             Sumatra: 2,700, 500, (3,200)
             Java: 2,700, 3,800, (6,500)
             Lesser Sundas: 51,800, 1,200, (53,000)
             Borneo: 11,300, 6,700, (18,000)
             Celebes: 1,500, 4,000, (5,500)
             Moluccas: 2,600, 1,800, (4,400)
             New Guinea: 112,400, 15,200, (127,600)
             Bismarck Archipelago: 19,700, 10,800, (30,500)
             Solomon Islands: 63,200, 25,000, (88,200)
             Total: 1,647,200, 473,800, (2,121,000)
 

Overall, perhaps two thirds of all Japanese military dead came not from combat, but from starvation and disease. In some cases this figure was potentially even higher, up to 80% in the Philippines and a staggering 97% in New Guinea.

             Army
             China after Pearl Harbor 202,958 killed and 88,920 wounded.
             vs. United States 485,717 killed and 34,679 wounded.
             vs. U.K. and Netherlands 208,026 killed and 139,225 wounded.
             vs. Australia 199,511 killed and 15,000 wounded.
             French Indochina 2,803 killed and 6,000 wounded.
             Manchuria & USSR 7,483 killed and 4,641 wounded.
             other overseas 23,388 killed and 0 wounded.
             Japan proper 10,543 killed and 6,782 wounded.
             Army total 1,140,429 killed and 295,247 wounded.
             Navy
             Sailors 300,386 killed and 12,275 wounded and missing.
             Civilians in Navy service 114,493 killed and 1,880 wounded and missing.
             Navy total 414,879 killed and 14,155 wounded and missing.
 

Civilian Dead

1-Summary Report (July 1946) Total civilian casualties in Japan, as a result of 9 months of air attack, including those from the atomic bombs, were approximately 806,000. Of these, approximately 330,000 were fatalities.

2-United States Strategic Bombing Survey, Medical Division (1947) The bombing of Japan killed 333,000 civilians and injured 473,000. Of this total 120,000 died and 160,000 were injured in the atomic bombings, leaving 213,000 dead and 313,000 injured by conventional bombing.

3-The effects of air attack on Japanese urban economy. Summary report (1947) Estimated that 252,769 Japanese were killed and 298,650 injured in the air war.

4-The Effects of strategic bombing on Japanese morale Based on a survey of Japanese households the death toll was put at 900,000 dead and 1.3 million injured, the SBS noted that this figure was subject to a maximum sampling error of 30%.

5-Strategic Bombing Survey The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki The most striking result of the atomic bombs was the great number of casualties. The exact number of dead and injured will never be known because of the confusion after the explosions. Persons unaccounted for might have been burned beyond recognition in the falling buildings, disposed of in one of the mass cremations of the first week of recovery, or driven out of the city to die or recover without any record remaining. No sure count of even the prepaid populations existed. Because of the decline in activity in the two port cities, the constant threat of incendiary raids, and the formal evacuation programs of the Government, an unknown number of the inhabitants had either drifter away from the cities or been removed according to plan. In this uncertain situation, estimates of casualties have generally ranged between 100,000 and 180,000 for Hiroshima, and between 50,000 and 100,000 for Nagasaki. The Survey believes the dead at Hiroshima to have been between 70,000 and 80,000, with an equal number injured; at Nagasaki over 35,000 dead and somewhat more than that injured seems the most plausible estimate.

^AC  Korea

^AD  Latvia

^AE  Lithuania

^AF  Luxembourg

^AG  Malaya and Singapore

^AH  Malta 1,493 civilians were killed and 3,734 wounded during the Siege of Malta (World War II) Maltese civilians killed during the siege are also included with U.K. civilian deaths by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

^AI  Mexico

^AJ  Mongolia

^AK  Nauru

^AL  Nepal

^AM  Netherlands

      Military deaths 6,750 which included 3,900 regular Army, 2,600 Navy forces, and 250 POW in Germany.
      Civilian deaths of 203,250 which included 1,350 Merchant seaman, 2,800 executed, 2,500 dead in Dutch concentration camps,
      20,400 killed by acts of war, 104,000 Jewish Holocaust dead, 18,000 political prisoners in Germany, 27,000 workers in Germany,
      3,700 Dutch nationals in the German armed forces and 7,500 missing and presumed dead in Germany and 16,000 deaths
      in the Dutch famine of 1944. Not Included in the figure of 210,000 war dead are 70,000 "indirect war casualties",
      which are attributed to an increase in natural deaths from 1940 to 1945 and 1,650 foreign nationals killed while serving in the
      Dutch Merchant Marine.

^AN  Newfoundland

^AO  New Zealand

^AP  Norway

          Military(Norwegian & Allied Forces) 2,000 (800 Army, 900 Navy and 100 Air).
          Civilians 7,500 (3,600 Merchant seaman, 1,500 resistance fighters, 1,800 civilians killed and 600 Jews killed)
          In German Armed Forces 700

^AQ  Papua New Guinea

^AR  Philippines

^AS  Poland

Total Polish war dead

Polish losses during the Soviet occupation (1939–1941)

Polish military casualties

^AT  Timor

^AU  Romania

^AV  Ruanda Urundi

^AW  South Africa

^AX  South Seas Mandate

The following notes summarize Soviet casualties, the details are presented in World War II casualties of the Soviet Union.

^AZ  Spain

^BA  Sweden

^BB  Switzerland

^BC  Thailand

^BD  Turkey

^BE  United Kingdom and Colonies

         Total war dead of 357,116; Navy (50,758); Army (144,079); Air Force (69,606); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (624);
         Merchant Navy (30,248); British Home Guard (1,206) and Civilians (60,595).
         The total still missing on 2/28/1946 were 6,244; Navy (340); Army (2,267); Air Force (3,089); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (18);
         Merchant Navy (530); British Home Guard (0) and Civilians (0).
         These figures included the losses of Newfoundland and Southern Rhodesia.
         Colonial forces are not included in these figures.
         There were an additional 31,271 military deaths due to "natural causes" which are not included in these figures.
         Deaths due to air and V-rocket attacks were 60,595 civilians and 1,206 British Home Guard.

^BF  United States
American military dead#^BF1

American civilian dead #^BF2

^BG  Yugoslavia

The losses of Yugoslav collaborators

The reasons for the high human toll in Yugoslavia were as follows A. Military operations between the occupying German military forces and their "Quislings and collaborators" against the Yugoslav resistance.
B. German forces, under express orders from Hitler, fought with a special vengeance against the Serbs, who were considered Untermensch. One of the worst one-day massacres during the German military occupation of Serbia was the Kragujevac massacre.
C. Deliberate acts of reprisal against target populations were perpetrated by all combatants. All sides practiced the shooting of hostages on a large scale. At the end of the war, many Ustaše and Slovene collaborators were killed in or as a result of the Yugoslav death march of Nazi collaborators.
D. The systematic extermination of large numbers of people for political, religious or racial reasons. The most numerous victims were Serbs. According to Yad Vashem, "During their four years in power, the Ustasa carried out a Serb genocide, exterminating over 500,000, expelling 250,000 and forcing another 200,000 to convert to Catholicism. The Ustasa also killed most of Croatia's Jews, 20,000 Gypsies, and many thousands of their political enemies." According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum "The Croat authorities murdered between 320,000 and 340,000 ethnic Serb residents of Croatia and Bosnia during the period of Ustaša rule; more than 30,000 Croatian Jews were killed either in Croatia or at Auschwitz-Birkenau". The USHMM reports between 77,000 and 99,000 persons were killed at the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška concentration camps. The Jasenovac Memorial Site quotes a similar figure of between 80,000 and 100,000 victims. Stara Gradiška was a sub-camp of Jasenovac established for women and children. The names and data for 12,790 victims at Stara Gradiška have been established. Serbian sources currently claim that 700,000 persons were murdered at Jasenovac.
Some 40,000 Roma were murdered. Jewish victims in Yugoslavia totaled 67,122.
E. Reduced food supply caused famine and disease.
F. Allied bombing of German supply lines caused civilian casualties. The hardest hit localities were Podgorica, Leskovac, Zadar and Belgrade.
G. The demographic losses due to the reduction of 335,000 births and emigration of about 660,000 are not included with war casualties.

^BH Other Nations

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  19. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy (1986); ISBN 0-394-75172-8
  20. ^ a b R.J. Rummel. China's Bloody Century. Transaction 1991; ISBN 0-88738-417-X
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  26. ^ a b Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951.p.44-45
  27. ^ a b c d e f g Clodfelter 2002, p. 540.
  28. ^ a b Clodfelter 2002, p. 512.
  29. ^ a b c d e Clodfelter 2002, p. 556.
  30. ^ McLynn, The Burma Campaign: Disaster into Triumph, 1942–1945, pg. 1.
  31. ^ a b "Canadian War Museum". Warmuseum.ca. Retrieved 2015-06-29.
  32. ^ "Canadian War Museum". Warmuseum.ca. Retrieved 2015-06-29. 1,600 in Merchant Navy
  33. ^ Clodfelter 2002, p. 412.
  34. ^ Ho Ping-ti. Studies on the Population of China, 1368–1953. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959.
  35. ^ a b R. J. Rummel. China's Bloody Century. Transaction 1991 ISBN 0-88738-417-X. Table 5A
  36. ^ a b Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8 p. 85
  37. ^ a b c Ho Ping-ti. Studies on the Population of China, 1368–1953. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959. p. 252
  38. ^ a b Waller Wynne, Population of Czechoslovakia. (International Population Statistics Reports series P-90, No. 3). U.S. Dept. of Commerce) Washington 1953. p. 43 – The U.S. Commerce Dept. Census Bureau cited the following source for the population at 1/1/1939 for Czechoslovakia, State Statistical Office, Statistical Bulletin of Czechoslovakia, v. II (1947) no. 4, Prague p. 57
  39. ^ a b c d Erlikman, Vadim (2004). Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik Потери народонаселения в XX веке: справочник (in Russian). Moscow: Russkaia panorama. p. 54. ISBN 5-93165-107-1.
  40. ^ a b c d e f Urlanis, Boris (1971). Wars and Population. Moscow Page 294
  41. ^ a b "Hvor mange dræbte danskere?". Danish Ministry of Education. 2005-03-11. Archived from the original on 2019-07-25. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  42. ^ Clodfelter 2002, p. 557, 2,500 killed in 1942 campaign
  43. ^ Van Waterford. Prisoners of the Japanese in World War II, McFarland & Company, 1994; ISBN 0899508936, p. 144 (8,500 Dutch POW deaths)
  44. ^ a b c Dower, John W. (1986). War Without Mercy. Knopf Doubleday Publishing. pp. 295–96. ISBN 0-394-75172-8.
  45. ^ Heike Liebau et al., World in World Wars: Experiences, Perceptions, and Perspectives from Africa and Asia. Studies in Global Social History, 2010), p. 227.
  46. ^ Estonian State Commission on Examination of Policies of Repression;The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes. 1940–1991 Tallinn 2005. ISBN 9985-70-195-X, p. 38, Table 2 (24,000 mobolized by USSR and 10,000 with Germans)
  47. ^ a b c Estonian State Commission on Examination of Policies of Repression;The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes. 1940–1991 Tallinn 2005. ISBN 9985-70-195-X, p. 38, Table 2
  48. ^ a b c Clodfelter 2002, p. 491.
  49. ^ a b "Finnish National Archives". Kronos.narc.fi. Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  50. ^ a b c d Tiina Kinnunen, Ville Kivimäki. Finland in World War II: History, Memory, Interpretations, BRILL 2011. ISBN 978-90-04-20894-0 pp. 172
  51. ^ a b c d e f g Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. pp. 58–59
  52. ^ a b Gunn, Geoffrey (2011) "The Great Vietnamese Famine of 1944–45 Revisited", The Asia-Pacific Journal, 9(5), no 4, January 31, 2011. http://www.japanfocus.org/-Geoffrey-Gunn/3483
  53. ^ a b c d e Marschalck, Peter. Bevölkerungsgeschichte Deutschlands im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, Suhrkamp 1984 p.149
  54. ^ a b c d The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, p. 78
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i Overmans 2000, pp. 228–232.
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  60. ^ a b Támas Stark. Hungary's Human Losses in World War II. Uppsala Univ. 1995 ISBN 91-86624-21-0 p.33
  61. ^ a b c d Támas Stark. Hungary's Human Losses in World War II. Uppsala Univ. 1995 ISBN 91-86624-21-0 p.59
  62. ^ a b "Hve margir Íslendingar dóu í seinni heimsstyrjöldinni?". Visindavefur.hi.is. 2005-06-14. Retrieved 2015-06-23.
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  64. ^ a b Ó Gráda, Cormac (2007). "Making Famine History". Journal of Economic Literature (Submitted manuscript). 45 (1): 5–38. doi:10.1257/jel.45.1.5. hdl:10197/492. JSTOR 27646746. S2CID 54763671. – p. 19
  65. ^ Devereux, Stephen (2000). Famine in the twentieth century (PDF) (Report). Brighton: Institute of Development Studies. p. 6. IDS Working Paper 105. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-05-16.
  66. ^ a b Clodfelter 2002, p. 498.
  67. ^ a b "Farhud". U.S. Holocaust Museum. Retrieved 2011-07-30.
  68. ^ "In service to their country: Moving tales of Irishmen who fought in WWII". irishexaminer.com. 2015-08-28. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
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  70. ^ the Ufficio dell'Albo d'Oro of the Italian Ministry of Defence Archived 2020-08-02 at the Wayback Machine.
  71. ^ (Rovighi, Alberto (1988), Le Operazioni in Africa Orientale: (giugno 1940 – novembre 1941)
  72. ^ (USSME, La prima offensiva Britannica in Africa Settentrionale, tomo I, allegato 32 (page 375))
  73. ^ Roma:Instituto Centrale Statistica. Morti E Dispersi Per Cause Belliche Negli Anni 1940–45, Rome, 1957
  74. ^ Ufficio Storico dello Stato Maggiore dell'Esercito
  75. ^ John W. Dower. War Without Mercy, 1986; ISBN 0-394-75172-8, pp. 297–99 (includes 1,740,995 dead 1937–45 and 380,000 surrendered Japanese who were unaccounted for after the war)
  76. ^ Ishikida, Miki (2005). Toward Peace: War Responsibility, Postwar Compensation, and Peace Movements and Education in Japan. Universe, Inc. (July 13, 2005). p. 30. (figures of Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare)
  77. ^ John W. Dower. War Without Mercy, 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8, pp. 297–99 (including air raid dead and Japanese civilians killed on Siapan and Okinawa,)
  78. ^ Ishikida, Miki (2005). Toward Peace: War Responsibility, Postwar Compensation, and Peace Movements and Education in Japan. iUniverse, Inc. (July 13, 2005). p. 30 (500,000 civilians in Japan and 300,000 overseas, figures of Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare)
  79. ^ John W. Dower. War Without Mercy, 1986; ISBN 0-394-75172-8, p. 299 (According to Dower, Japanese war dead are "at least 2.5 million")
  80. ^ Ishikida, Miki (2005). Toward Peace: War Responsibility, Postwar Compensation, and Peace Movements and Education in Japan. Universe, Inc. (July 13, 2005). p. 30 (figures of Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare)
  81. ^ R. J. Rumell, Statistics of democide Table 3.1
  82. ^ Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007; ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8, p. 19
  83. ^ Erlikman 2004, p. 28, footnotes 6–7Killed: 10,000 with Soviets and 15,000 with Germans; 3,000 POW deaths,2,000 partisans
  84. ^ a b Erlikman 2004, p. 28.
  85. ^ Erlikman 2004, p. 29, footnotes 5–6Killed: 15,000 with Soviets and 5,000 with Germans. POW deaths 4,000, 1,000 partisans
  86. ^ a b Erlikman 2004, p. 29.
  87. ^ a b c d Michel Pauly : Geschichte Luxemburgs, 2013, ISBN 978-3-406-62225-0 p.102
  88. ^ John W. Dower. War Without Mercy, (1986); ISBN 0-394-75172-8, p. 296
  89. ^ a b c Clodfelter 2002, p. 492.
  90. ^ a b Erlikman 2004, p. 74.
  91. ^ a b "United States State Department Background notes Nauru". State.gov. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  92. ^ a b c d "Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Netherlands" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 2, 2011. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  93. ^ "The loss of Dutch lives (in numbers)". www.niod.nl. Retrieved 2023-01-01.
  94. ^ a b Higgins, Jenny (2007). "Newfoundlanders and Labradorians in WWII". Heritage Newfoundland & Labrador. Retrieved 2017-02-23.
  95. ^ a b "Sinking of the Caribou". www.heritage.nf.ca.
  96. ^ a b "Auckland War Museum, World War Two Hall of Memories". Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  97. ^ a b c d e Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. pp. 112–14
  98. ^ a b Bjij, V. Lal and Kate Fortune. The Pacific Islands – An Encyclopedia, p. 244
  99. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on 2016-10-11. Retrieved 2016-10-06.
  100. ^ a b Clodfelter 2002, p. 566.
  101. ^ a b c d e "Research Starters: Worldwide Deaths in World War II". New Orleans, United States: The National WWII Museum. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  102. ^ a b Anne Sharp Wells (28 September 2009). The A to Z of World War II: The War Against Japan. Scarecrow Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-8108-7026-0.
  103. ^ a b "AJR-27 War crimes: Japanese military during World War II". California Legislative Information. State of California. 26 August 1999. Retrieved 23 July 2019. WHEREAS, At the February 1945 "Battle of Manila," 100,000 men, women, and children were killed by Japanese armed forces in inhumane ways, adding to a total death toll that may have exceeded one million Filipinos during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, which began in December 1941 and ended in August 1945;
  104. ^ Clodfelter 2017, p. 512. sfn error: no target: CITEREFClodfelter2017 (help)
  105. ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington, D.C., 1954 p. 103 (population on 1/1/1939)
  106. ^ Gniazdowski, Mateusz. Losses Inflicted on Poland by Germany during World War II. Assessments and Estimates—an Outline The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs, 2007, (140,000 Regular forces and 100,000 resistance fighters)
  107. ^ a b Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, p. 9
  108. ^ a b Czes?aw ?uczak Polska i Polacy w drugiej wojnie ?wiatowej (Poland and Poles in the Second World War), Stycze? 1993; ISBN 83-232-0511-6, p. 683
  109. ^ a b c "Department of Defence (Australia), 2002, "A Short History of East Timor"". Archived from the original on January 3, 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-03. (accessdate: October 13, 2010.)
  110. ^ Mark Axworthy. Third Axis Fourth Ally. Arms and Armour 1995; ISBN 1-85409-267-7, p. 216
  111. ^ League of Nations Yearbook 1942 p.14
  112. ^ a b Belgian 1946 estimate, cited in Singiza, Dantès (2011). La Famine Ruzagayura (Rwanda, 1943–1944): causes, Conséquences et réactions des autorités (PDF). Teveuren: Royal Museum of Central Africa. pp. 92–3.
  113. ^ a b United Nations 1948 estimate, cited in Singiza, Dantès (2011). La Famine Ruzagayura (Rwanda, 1943–1944): causes, Conséquences et réactions des autorités (PDF). Teveuren: Royal Museum of Central Africa. p. 94.
  114. ^ League of Nations Yearbook 1942 p.22
  115. ^ John W. Dower. War Without Mercy, 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 29 (10,000 civilian dead on Saipan)
  116. ^ Andreev, EM, et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993; ISBN 978-5-02-013479-9, pp. 52–53 (the 1939 population was adjusted by Andreev to reflect the net population transfers in 1939–1945.)
  117. ^ Davies 2005, p. 771939 population 188.8 million (168.5 in pre-war territory and 20.3 in annexed territories)
  118. ^ Andreev EM; Darsky LE; Kharkova TL, Population dynamics: consequences of regular and irregular changes. in Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union Before 1991. Routledge. 1993; ISBN 0415101948 p. 429. (1939 population including annexed territories 188.794 million)
  119. ^ G. F. Krivosheyev (1993) "Soviet Armed Forces Losses in Wars, Combat Operations and Military Conflicts: A Statistical Study". Military Publishing House Moscow. (Translated by U.S. government) p. 121 Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  120. ^ Krivosheev 1997, p. 85, . 8,8668,000, including 1,283,000 POW and 500,000 missing.
  121. ^ "Michael Ellman and S. Maksudov, Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War:a note-World War II - Europe Asia Studies, July 1994" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-06-28. (8.668 million including 1.783 million POW and missing)
  122. ^ Hartmann, Christian (2013). Operation Barbarossa: Nazi Germany's War in the East, 1941–1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-19-966078-0. 11.4 million
  123. ^ Ian Dear (1995). Oxford Companion to World War II. Oxford University Press 1995. p. 290. ISBN 978-0198662259. (10 million military dead)
  124. ^ Erlikman 2004, pp. 20–21, 10,600,000, including 2.6 million POW
  125. ^ S. N. Mikhalev, Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine 1941–1945 gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie, Krasnoiarskii gos. pedagog. universitet, 2000; ISBN 978-5-85981-082-6, pp. 18–21. S. N. Mikhalev, Human Losses in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945: A Statistical Investigation; Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University (in Russian) (10.922 million total dead and missing)
  126. ^ a b Zemskov, Viktor. "The extent of human losses USSR in the Great Patriotic War (in Russian)". demoscope.ru # 559-60, July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
  127. ^ Ian Dear (1995). Oxford Companion to World War II. Oxford University Press 1995. pp. 290. ISBN 978-0198662259. (10 million civilian dead)
  128. ^ Erlikman 2004, pp. 20–21, 10,000,000
  129. ^ Evdokimov 1995, pp. 124–2710,242,000 including 7,420,000 killed by intentional acts of violence, 2,164,000 as forced labor for Germany and 658,000 in siege of Leningrad.
  130. ^ Andreev EM; Darsky LE; Kharkova TL, Population dynamics: consequences of regular and irregular changes. in Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union Before 1991. Routledge. 1993; ISBN 0415101948 p. 429.
  131. ^ Evdokimov 1995, pp. 127, 1586.6 to 7.1 million deaths due to famine and disease including 4.1 million in German occupied USSR and 2.5 – 3.2 million deaths in area not occupied by Germany
  132. ^ Erlikman 2004, pp. 20–21, 5,500,000 famine and disease deaths plus repression 1.4 million deaths (200,000 executed, 1.2 million deaths in Gulag and Special Settlements)
  133. ^ Zemskov, Viktor. "The extent of human losses USSR in the Great Patriotic War (in Russian)". demoscope.ru # 559-60, July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2017. Viktor Zemskov maintains that the figure of 27 million total war dead includes about 7 million deaths due to natural causes based on the mortality rate that prevailed before the war
  134. ^ Andreev EM; Darsky LE; Kharkova TL, Population dynamics: consequences of regular and irregular changes. in Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union Before 1991. Routledge. 1993. ISBN 0415101948 pp. 434–436 (26.6 million war dead includes a decline in natural deaths of 3.0 million and a 1.3 million increase in infant mortality)
  135. ^ Erlikman 2004, pp. 20–21, 26,500,000
  136. ^ Davies, R. W. (2005) . "(E) The Second World War, 1939-1945". Economic Transformation of the Soviet Union, 1913–1945. Cambridge University Press. pp. 77–79. ISBN 978-0521457705. Total losses of 26.6 million out of a 1939 population of 188.8 million, which included 20.3 million annexed territories
  137. ^ Michael Haynes, Counting Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War: a Note Europe Asia Studies Vol. 55, No. 2, 2003, 300–309 (26.6 million)
  138. ^ "Michael Ellman and S. Maksudov, Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War:a note-World War II - Europe Asia Studies, July 1994" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-06-28. (26 to 27 million)
  139. ^ a b "Swedish Volunteer Corps". Svenskafrivilliga.com. Retrieved 2011-06-16.
  140. ^ Lennart Lundberg Handelsflottan under andra världskriget p.9
  141. ^ a b Jonathan E. Helmreich (Summer 2000). "The Diplomacy of Apology: U.S. Bombings of Switzerland during World War II". Aerospace Power Journal. Archived from the original on May 5, 2007. Retrieved March 4, 2016 – via Airpower.maxwell.af.mil.
  142. ^ a b Eiji Murashima, "The Commemorative Character of Thai Historiography: The 1942–43 Thai Military Campaign in the Shan States Depicted as a Story of National Salvation and the Restoration of Thai Independence" Modern Asian Studies, v40, n4 (2006) pp. 1053–1096, p1057n:
  143. ^ a b "SS_Refah, Graces Guide". Retrieved 2015-06-23.
  144. ^ Jan Lahmeyer. "The UNITED KINGDOM : country population". www.populstat.info. Archived from the original on 2019-07-22. Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  145. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission (2015-04-12). "Annual Report 2014-2015". issuu. p. 39. Retrieved 2019-03-05. Table: "Breakdown of War Dead by Forces". Figures include identified burials as and those commemorated by name on memorials attributed to the United Kingdom.
  146. ^ "Civilian War Dead Roll of Honour 1939 – 1945". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 2019-03-05. In 2017, "several hundred" new names were added which are not part of this statistic.
  147. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission (2014-05-11). "Annual Report 2013-2014". issuu. p. 43. Retrieved 2019-03-05. References the War Dead Roll of Honour. Figures include civilians killed in the Battle of Britain, Siege of Malta, and civilians interned by enemy nations. The CWGC list foreign nationals killed by enemy action on British territory among these.
  148. ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. 156
  149. ^ a b c d I. C. B. Dear and M. R. D. Foot Oxford Companion to World War II Oxford, 2005; ISBN 0-19-280670-X, p. 290
  150. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4 In Cap. 17 Alleged and True Population Losses there is a detailed account of the controversies related to Yugoslav war losses (pp. 744–50)
  151. ^ "U.S. Census BureauWorld Population Historical Estimates of World Population". Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  152. ^ a b Erlikman 2004, pp. 21–35.
  153. ^ a b c Andreev, EM, et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993; ISBN 978-5-02-013479-9, p. 118
  154. ^ "НАСЕЛЕНИЕ Советского Союза 1922–1991" (PDF). Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  155. ^ a b Evdokimov 1995, pp. 82–84.
  156. ^ a b Naselenie Rossii v XX Veke: V 3-kh Tomakh: Tom 2. 1940–1959
  157. ^ Zmeskov, Viktor. "Репатриация перемещённых советских граждан (Repatriation of displaced Soviet citizens)". Социологические исследования. 1995. Retrieved 10 May 2017. более чем на 3/4 состояла из «западников» и менее чем на 1/4 — из «восточников»
  158. ^ S. Maksudov Losses Suffered by the Population of the USSR 1918–1958 The Samizdat register II / edited by Roy Medvedev New York : Norton, 1981. pp. 238–240)
  159. ^ Mały Rocznik Statystyczny Polski 1939–1941
  160. ^ Eberhardt, Piotr. "Political Migrations on Polish Territories 1939–1950" (PDF). Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  161. ^ a b c Krystyna Kersten, Szacunek strat osobowych w Polsce Wschodniej. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI, 1994 p. 46
  162. ^ a b c d e f g h i Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960 Bonn 1961 p.78 (available online at https://www.digizeitschriften.de/de/openaccess)
  163. ^ a b c d "Bundeskanzleramt der Republik Österreich - Startseite". www.bundeskanzleramt.gv.at. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  164. ^ "Bundeskanzleramt der Republik Österreich – Startseite – Bundeskanzleramt Österreich". www.bundeskanzleramt.gv.at.
  165. ^ File:DR1937.1.png
  166. ^ a b c Richard Overy, The Bombers and the Bombed: Allied Air War Over Europe 1940–1945 (2013) pp. 304–7 (Overy noted that "No doubt this does not include all those who were killed or died of wounds, but it does include uniformed personnel, POWs, and foreign workers, and it applies to the Greater German area". Using the United States Strategic Bombing Survey data Overy calculated an average monthly death toll of 18,777 from September 1944 to January 1945, taking this monthly average he estimated losses of 57,000 from February to April 1945 to which he adds an additional 25,000 killed in Dresden for total deaths of 82,000 from February to April 1945. The figures up until the end of January 1945 of 271,000 and the 82,000 from February to April 1945 give an overall figure of 353,000 air war deaths. Overy summarizes: "Detailed reconstruction of deaths caused by the Royal Air Force bombing from February to May 1945, though incomplete, suggests a total of at least 57,000. If casualties inflicted by the American air forces are assumed to be lower, since their bombing was less clearly aimed at cities, an overall death toll of 82,000 is again statistically realistic. In the absence of unambiguous statistical evidence, the figure of 353,000 gives an approximate scale consistent with the evidence".)
  167. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956
  168. ^ Germany reports. With an introd. by Konrad Adenauer. Germany (West). Presse- und Informationsamt. Wiesbaden, Distribution: F. Steiner, 1961, pp. 31–33 (figure includes 170,000 German Jews). The West German government did not list euthanasia victims along with the war dead.
  169. ^ a b c Germany reports. With an introd. by Konrad Adenauer. Germany (West). Presse- und Informationsamt. Wiesbaden, Distribution: F. Steiner, 1961 pp. 31–33 (they give figure of 300,000 German deaths due to racial, religious and political persecution including 170,000 Jews. Figure does not include the Nazi euthanasia program
  170. ^ a b Bundesarchiv Euthanasie" im Nationalsozialismus Archived 2013-10-21 at the Wayback Machine 2003 report by German Federal Archive puts the dead toll in the Nazi euthanasia program at over 200,000
  171. ^ German Federal Archive, Siegel, Silke Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945–1948. Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom 28. Mai 1974. Archivalien und ausgewählte Erlebnisberichte. Bonn 1989 P. 41 (100,000 during wartime flight; 200,000 in USSR as forced labor and 100,000 in internment camps)
  172. ^ a b Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office)
  173. ^ Overmans 2000, p. 228, . Overmans uses the German description "Deutsche nach Abstammung" German according to ancestry
  174. ^ Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960 Bonn 1961 p. 79 (available online at http://www.digizeitschriften.de/de/openaccess)
  175. ^ a b German Federal Archive, Siegel, Silke Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945–1948. Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom 28. Mai 1974. Archivalien und ausgewählte Erlebnisberichte. Bonn 1989 P. 53 (38,000 during wartime flight; 5,000 in USSR as forced labor and 160,000 in internment camps)
  176. ^ "Digizeitschriften". www.digizeitschriften.de. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  177. ^ a b The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, pp. 78–79
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  179. ^ a b Austria facts and Figures p. 44 The Austrian government estimates 100,000 victims of Nazi persecution including 65,000 Jews.
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  518. ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington, D.C., 1954, p. 187
  519. ^ Andreev, E. M., et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993; ISBN 5-02-013479-1, p. 78.
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  525. ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance (IPN), Warsaw 2009; ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, p. 20
  526. ^ "Victims of the Nazi Regime-Database of Polish citizens repressed under the German Occupation". Straty.pl. Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2011-06-16.
  527. ^ Nürnberg Document No. 3568. Data from this document is listed in Martin Brozat, Nationalsozialistische Polenpolitik Fischer Bücheri 1961. p. 125
  528. ^ Die deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. Bevölkerungsbilanzen für die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50. Herausgeber: Statistisches Bundesamt – Wiesbaden. – Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1958
  529. ^ Schimitzek, Stanislaw, Truth or Conjecture? Warsaw 1966
  530. ^ Ruas, Óscar Vasconcelos, "Relatório 1946–47", AHU
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  532. ^ Mark Axworthy. Third Axis Fourth Ally. Arms and Armour 1995; ISBN 1-85409-267-7, pp. 216–17
  533. ^ Mark Axworthy. Third Axis Fourth Ally. Arms and Armour 1995 ISBN 1-85409-267-7, p. 314
  534. ^ Catharine Newbury The Cohesion of Oppression: Clientship and Ethnicity in Rwanda: 1860–1960 Columbia University Press, 1993 ISBN 0-231-06257-5 pp. 157–158
  535. ^ Linden, Jan Church and revolution in Rwanda, Manchester University Press 1977; ISBN 0-8419-0305-0, p. 207
  536. ^ Alexander De Waal, Famine crimes: politics & the disaster relief industry in Africa Indiana Univ. Press, 1999; ISBN 0-253-21158-1, p. 30
  537. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2013-2014 Archived 2015-11-04 at the Wayback Machine, page 44. Figures include identified burials and those commemorated by name on memorials.
  538. ^ Poyer, Lin; Falgout, Suzanne; Carucci, Laurence Marshall. The Typhoon of War: Micronesian Experiences of the Pacific War Univ of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 2001; ISBN 0-8248-2168-8
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  540. ^ Michael Ellman and S. Maksudov, Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War:a note – World War II – Europe Asia Studies, July 1994
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  548. ^ Krivosheev 1997, pp. 85–92.
  549. ^ "Christian Streit: Keine Kameraden: Die Wehrmacht und die Sowjetischen Kriegsgefangenen, 1941–1945, Bonn: Dietz (3. Aufl., 1. Aufl. 1978), ISBN 3-8012-5016-4"Between 22 June 1941 and the end of the war, roughly 5.7 million members of the Red Army fell into German hands. In January 1945, 930,000 were still in German camps. A million at most had been released, most of whom were so-called "volunteers" (Hilfswillige) for (often compulsory) auxiliary service in the Wehrmacht. Another 500,000, as estimated by the Army High Command, had either fled or been liberated. The remaining 3,300,000 (57.5 percent of the total) had perished.
  550. ^ "Nazi persecution of Soviet Prisoners of War". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Existing sources suggest that some 5.7 million Soviet army personnel fell into German hands during World War II. As of January 1945, the German army reported that only about 930,000 Soviet POWs remained in German custody. The German army released about one million Soviet POWs as auxiliaries of the German army and the SS. About half a million Soviet POWs had escaped German custody or had been liberated by the Soviet army as it advanced westward through eastern Europe into Germany. The remaining 3.3 million, or about 57 percent of those taken prisoner, were dead by the end of the war.
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  552. ^ "Soviet POWs". 2016-11-10. Archived from the original on 2016-11-10. Retrieved 2021-03-13.
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  555. ^ Hartmann, Christian (2013). Operation Barbarossa: Nazi Germany's War in the East, 1941–1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-19-966078-0.
  556. ^ Krivosheev 1997, p. 89.
  557. ^ a b Mikhalev, S. N (2000). Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine 1941–1945 gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie (Human Losses in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945 A Statistical Investigation). Krasnoiarskii gos. pedagog. universitet (Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University). pp. 22–23 ISBN 978-5-85981-082-6 (in Russian)
  558. ^ S. A. Il'enkov Pamyat O Millionach Pavshik Zaschitnikov Otechestva Nelzya Predavat Zabveniu Voennno-Istoricheskii Arkhiv No. 7 (22), Central Military Archives of the Russian Federation 2001, pp. 73–80; ISBN 978-5-89710-005-7 (The Memory of those who Fell Defending the Fatherland Cannot be Condemned to Oblivion); in Russian; available at the New York Public Library)
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  560. ^ Perrie, Maureen (2006), The Cambridge History of Russia: The Twentieth Century, Cambridge University Press, p. 226 ISBN 9780521811446
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  562. ^ a b Жертвы двух диктатур. Остарбайтеры и военнопленные в Третьем Рейхе и их репатриация. – М.: Ваш выбор ЦИРЗ, 1996. – pp. 735–38. (Victims of Two Dictatorships. Ostarbeiters and POW in Third Reich and Their Repatriation) (Russian)
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  564. ^ Andreev, EM; Darski, LE; Kharkova, TL (11 September 2002). "Population dynamics: consequences of regular and irregular changes". In Lutz, Wolfgang; Scherbov, Sergei; Volkov, Andrei (eds.). Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union Before 1991. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-85320-5.
  565. ^ David M. Glantz, Siege of Leningrad 1941 1944 Cassell 2001 ISBN 978-1-4072-2132-8 p.320
  566. ^ Andreev, E.M.; Darski, L.E.; Kharkova, T.L. (1993). Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow: Nauka. ISBN 978-5-02-013479-9. p. 85
  567. ^ Erlikman 2004.
  568. ^ Łuczak, Czesław. Szanse i trudnosci bilansu demograficznego Polski w latach 1939–1945. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI. 1994. The losses in the former Polish eastern regions are also included in Poland's total war dead of 5.6 to 5.8 million
  569. ^ Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust. 1988. ISBN 978-0-688-12364-2
  570. ^ a b "L.L. Rybakovsky. Casualties of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War (in Russian), Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 2000, No. 6" (PDF).
  571. ^ G. F. Krivosheyev (1993) "Soviet Armed Forces Losses in Wars, Combat Operations and Military Conflicts: A Statistical Study". Military Publishing House Moscow. (Translated by U.S. government) p. 110 Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  572. ^ "OBD Memorial". Obd-memorial.ru. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10. Retrieved 2011-06-16.
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  574. ^ Lennart Lundberg Handelsflottan under andra världskriget, p. 9
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  576. ^ Sorasanya Phaengspha (2002) The Indochina War: Thailand Fights France. Sarakadee Press.
  577. ^ Eiji Murashima, "The Commemorative Character of Thai Historiography: The 1942–43 Thai Military Campaign in the Shan States Depicted as a Story of National Salvation and the Restoration of Thai Independence" Modern Asian Studies, v40, n4 (2006) pp. 1053–96, p. 1057n: "Deaths in the Thai military forces from 8 December 1941 through the end of the war included 143 officers, 474 non-commissioned officers, and 4,942 soldiers. (Defense Ministry of Thailand, In Memory of Victims who Fell in Battle , Bangkok: Krom phaenthi Thahanbok, 1947). With the exception of about 180 who died in the 8 December battles and another 150 who died in battles in the Shan states , almost all of the war dead died of malaria and other diseases."
  578. ^ E. Bruce Reynolds, "Aftermath of Alliance: The Wartime Legacy in Thai-Japanese Relations", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, v21, n1, March 1990, pp. 66–87. "An OSS document (XL 30948, RG 226, USNA) quotes Thai Ministry of Interior figures of 8,711 air raids deaths in 1944–45 and damage to more than 10,000 buildings, most of them totally destroyed. However, an account by M. R. Seni Pramoj (a typescript entitled "The Negotiations Leading to the Cessation of a State of War with Great Britain" and filed under Papers on World War II, at the Thailand Information Center, Chulalongkorn University, p. 12) indicates that only about 2,000 Thai died in air raids."
  579. ^ E. Bruce Reynolds, "Aftermath of Alliance: The Wartime Legacy in Thai-Japanese Relations", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, v21, n1, March 1990, pp. 66–87. Thailand exported rice to neighboring Japanese-occupied countries during 1942–45 (p 72n) and did not experience the notorious famines that occurred in India and French Indochina (see above) between 1943–44.
  580. ^ "Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2014-2015, p. 38". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Archived from the original on 25 June 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.Figures include identified burials and those commemorated by name on memorials
  581. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2013-2014 Archived 2015-11-04 at the Wayback Machine, page 44.
  582. ^ Marika Sherwood. "Colonies, Colonials and World War Two". BBC. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  583. ^ "Cyprus Veterans Association World War II". Cyprusveterans.com.cy. Archived from the original on March 9, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  584. ^ Marika Sherwood, World War II Colonies and Colonials. Savannah Press 2013; ISBN 978-0951972076, p. 15
  585. ^ a b "U.S. Coast Guard History". Uscg.mil. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
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  587. ^ "US Navy and Marine Corps Personnel Casualties in World War II". History.navy.mil. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  588. ^ "The National Archives Catalog". National Archives. August 15, 2016.
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  592. ^ Summary of merchant marine personnel casualties, World War II. Washington. March 3, 1950. hdl:2027/mdp.39015082088017.
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  595. ^ Center for Internee Rights, Civilian prisoners of the Japanese in the Philippine Islands Turner Press 2002; ISBN 1-56311-838-6
  596. ^ The annual death rate in 1942–1945 of Americans interned by Japan was about 3.5%. There were 1,536 deaths among the 13,996 interned civilians in 1942–45.
    The United States interned about 100,000 Japanese Americans between 1942–45. The 1946 report by the U.S. Dept. of The Interior "The Evacuated People a Quantitative Description" gave the annual death rate in 1942–1945 of Japanese detained in the U.S. at about 0.7%. There were 1,862 deaths among the 100,000 to 110,000 American civilians of Japanese ancestry interned in the U.S. in 1942–45. The annual death rate among the U.S. population as a whole in 1942–45 was about 1.1% per annum.
  597. ^ a b Clodfelter 2002, p. 552.
  598. ^ Roger Mansell (2012). Captured: The Forgotten Men of Guam. Naval Institute Press. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-1-61251-114-6.
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  601. ^ Robert Goralski, World War II Almanac, 1939–1945: a political and military record, New York, p. 428
  602. ^ Sir John Keegan Atlas of the Second World War, HarperCollins 1997, pp. 204–05
  603. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-8047-3615-4, p. 733
  604. ^ a b c Danijela Nadj (1993). Yugoslavia manipulations with the number Second World War victims. Zagreb: Croatian Information Center. ISBN 978-0-919817-32-6. Archived from the original on August 8, 2020. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
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  606. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-8047-3615-4, Cap. 17 Alleged and True Population Losses
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  611. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford University Press. p. 729. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4.
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  613. ^ "Croatian President Mesic Apologizes for Croatian Crimes Against the Jews during the Holocaust". Yad Vashem. Archived from the original on 2017-05-16. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
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  617. ^ "JUSP Jasenovac - Stara Gradiška". www.jusp-jasenovac.hr. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  618. ^ Donald Kendrick, The Destiny of Europe's Gypsies. Basic Books, 1972; ISBN 0-465-01611-1, p. 184
  619. ^ Martin Gilbert Atlas of the Holocaust 1988; ISBN 0-688-12364-3, p. 244
  620. ^ Thomas M. Leonard, John F. Bratzel, George Lauderbaugh. Latin America in World War II, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers (September 11, 2006), p. 83

Further reading

External links