Indian Premier League

Indian Premier League
CountriesIndia
AdministratorBoard of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI)
HeadquartersCricket Centre, Churchgate, Mumbai, Maharashtra
FormatTwenty20
First edition2008
Latest edition2024
Next edition2025
Tournament formatRound Robin format with Group System and Playoffs
Number of teams10
Current championKolkata Knight Riders
(3rd title)
Most successfulChennai Super Kings
Mumbai Indians
(5 titles each)
Most runsVirat Kohli (8,004)
Most wicketsYuzvendra Chahal (205)
TVIndia
Star Sports (TV)
JioCinema (Internet)
International
List of broadcasters
Websiteiplt20.com

The Indian Premier League (IPL), also known as the TATA IPL for sponsorship reasons, is a men's Twenty20 (T20) cricket league held annually in India. Founded by the BCCI (the Board of Control for Cricket in India) in 2007, the league features ten state or city-based franchise teams. The IPL usually takes place during the summer, between March and May each year. It has an exclusive window in the ICC Future Tours Programme, resulting in fewer international cricket tours occurring during the IPL seasons.

The IPL is by far the most popular cricket league in the world; in 2014, it ranked sixth in average attendance among all sports leagues. In 2010, the IPL became the first sporting event to be broadcast live on YouTube. Inspired by the success of the IPL, other Indian sports leagues have been established. In 2022, the league's brand value was estimated at ₹90,038 crore (US$11 billion). According to the BCCI, the 2015 IPL season contributed ₹1,150 crore (US$140 million) to India's GDP. In December 2022, the IPL achieved a valuation of US$10.9 billion, becoming a decacorn and registering a 75% growth in dollar terms since 2020 when it was valued at $6.2 billion, according to a report by the consulting firm D and P Advisory. Its 2023 final became the most streamed live event on the internet, with 32 million viewers.

In 2023, the league sold its media rights for the next 4 Seasons for US$6.4 billion to Viacom18 and Star Sports, meaning each IPL match was valued at $13.4 million. As of 2024, there have been seventeen seasons of the tournament. The current champions are the Kolkata Knight Riders, who won the 2024 season after defeating the Sunrisers Hyderabad in the final.

History

Winners
Indian Premier League
Season Winners
2008 Rajasthan Royals
2009 Deccan Chargers
2010 Chennai Super Kings
2011 Chennai Super Kings (2)
2012 Kolkata Knight Riders
2013 Mumbai Indians
2014 Kolkata Knight Riders (2)
2015 Mumbai Indians (2)
2016 Sunrisers Hyderabad 
2017 Mumbai Indians (3)
2018 Chennai Super Kings (3)
2019 Mumbai Indians (4)
2020 Mumbai Indians (5)
2021 Chennai Super Kings (4)
2022 Gujarat Titans
2023 Chennai Super Kings (5)
2024 Kolkata Knight Riders (3)

Inspired by a rival

In 2007, Zee Entertainment Enterprises founded the Indian Cricket League (ICL). The ICL was not recognized by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) or the International Cricket Council (ICC). Moreover, the BCCI was unhappy about its committee members joining the ICL executive board. In response, the BCCI increased the prize money for its domestic tournaments and imposed lifetime bans on players who joined the rival league, which it considered a rebel league.

Foundation

On 13 September 2007, following India's victory at the 2007 T20 World Cup, the BCCI announced a franchise based Twenty20 cricket competition known as the Indian Premier League. The inaugural season was scheduled to start in April 2008, commencing with a "high-profile ceremony" in New Delhi. BCCI Vice-president Lalit Modi, who led the IPL initiative, provided details of the tournament, including its format, prize money, franchise revenue system, and squad composition rules. The league, to be managed by a seven-man governing council, would also serve as the qualifying mechanism for that year's Champions League Twenty20.

To determine team ownership, an auction for the franchises was held on 24 January 2008. The reserve prices for the eight franchises totalled $400 million, but the auction ultimately raised $723.59 million. The league officially commenced in April 2008, featuring Chennai Super Kings (CSK), Mumbai Indians (MI), Delhi Daredevils (DD), Kings XI Punjab (KXIP), Deccan Chargers (DC), Rajasthan Royals (RR), Kolkata Knight Riders (KKR), and Royal Challengers Bangalore (RCB).

Following the ban on players who chose to participate in the ICL, the rival league shut down in 2009.

A match during the 2008 IPL inaugural season in Chennai

Expansions and terminations

New franchises, Pune Warriors India and Kochi Tuskers Kerala, joined the league before the fourth season in 2011. The Sahara Adventure Sports Group purchased the Pune franchise for $370 million, while Rendezvous Sports World bought the Kochi franchise for $333.3 million. The Kochi franchise was terminated after just one season due to their failure to pay the BCCI the 10% bank guarantee element of the franchise fee.

In September 2012, the Deccan Chargers franchise agreement was terminated after the BCCI failed to find new owners. In October, an auction was held for a replacement franchise; Sun TV Network won the bid for what became the Hyderabad franchise; the team was named Sunrisers Hyderabad.

Pune Warriors India withdrew from the IPL in May 2013 due to financial differences with the BCCI. The BCCI officially terminated the franchise in October, and the league reverted to eight teams.

In June 2015, the two-time champions Chennai Super Kings and the inaugural season champions Rajasthan Royals were suspended for two seasons following their involvement in a spot-fixing and betting scandal. The two teams were replaced for two seasons by franchises based in Pune and Rajkot.

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the venue for the 2020 season was moved and games were played in the United Arab Emirates. In August 2021, the BCCI announced two new franchises, based in two of six shortlisted cities, would join the league in the 2022 season. In closed bidding held in October, the RPSG Group and CVC Capital won the bids for the teams, paying ₹7,000 crore (US$880 million) and ₹5,200 crore (US$650 million), respectively. The teams were subsequently named Lucknow Super Giants and Gujarat Titans.

Several IPL franchise owners have expanded their business by acquiring teams in other franchise leagues, such as the Caribbean Premier League (CPL), South Africa's SA20, the UAE's International League T20 (ILT) and the USA's Major League Cricket (MLC). These teams have been branded with similar names to their parent IPL franchises.

Indian Premier League CPL SA20 ILT MLC
Chennai Super Kings Joburg Super Kings Texas Super Kings
Delhi Capitals Pretoria Capitals Dubai Capitals
Gujarat Titans
Kolkata Knight Riders Trinbago Knight Riders Abu Dhabi Knight Riders Los Angeles Knight Riders
Lucknow Super Giants Durban's Super Giants
Mumbai Indians MI Cape Town MI Emirates MI New York
Punjab Kings Saint Lucia Kings
Rajasthan Royals Barbados Royals Paarl Royals
Royal Challengers Bengaluru
Sunrisers Hyderabad Sunrisers Eastern Cape

Organization

The IPL's headquarters are located in the Cricket Centre, next to the Wankhede Stadium in Churchgate, Mumbai. The Governing Council is responsible for the league's functions, including the organization of tournaments. As of April 2023, its members included:

Player acquisition, squad composition, and salaries

A team can acquire players through the annual player auction, trading with other teams during trading windows, and signing replacements for unavailable players. Players sign up for the auction and set their base price and are bought by the highest-bidding franchise. Unsold players at the auction can become replacement signings. Trades require player consent, and any contract differences are covered by the franchise. There are typically three trading windows: two before the auction and one before the tournament. No trading is allowed outside these windows or during the tournament, but replacements can be signed before or during the event.

Other notable rules, as of the 2024 season, include:

Player contracts run for one year but can be extended by one or two years if the franchises take up the option. Since the 2014 season, player contracts have been denominated in the Indian rupee, before which the contracts were in the US dollar. Overseas players can be remunerated in the currency of the player's choice, at the exchange rate on either the contract due date or the actual payment date. Before the 2014 season, Indian domestic players were not included in the player auction pool. They could be signed up by franchises at a discrete amount while a fixed sum of ₹10 lakh (US$13,000) to ₹30 lakh (US$38,000) would be deducted per signing from the franchise's salary purse. This received significant opposition from franchise owners, who complained richer franchises were "luring players with under-the-table deals." The IPL later decided to include domestic players in the player auction.

The BCCI give 10% of foreign players' salaries to their country's national cricket board.


Top 10 Highest Paid Players in IPL 2024 Auction by Forbes India (as of 2024 IPL) :

Player IPL team Salary
Mitchell Starc Kolkata Knight Riders (KKR) Rs 24.75 Crore
Pat Cummins Sunrisers Hyderabad (SRH) Rs 20.50 Crore
Daryl Mitchell Chennai Super Kings (CSK) Rs 14 Crore
Harshal Patel Punjab Kings (PBKS) Rs 11.75 Crore
Alzarri Joseph Royal Challengers Bengaluru (RCB) Rs 11.50 Crore
Spencer Johnson Gujarat Titans (GT) Rs 10 Crore
Sameer Rizvi Chennai Super Kings (CSK) Rs 8.40 Crore
Rilee Rossouw Punjab Kings (PBKS) Rs 8 Crore
Rovman Powell Rajasthan Royals (RR) Rs 7.40 Crore
Shahrukh Khan Gujarat Titans (GT) Rs 7.40 Crore
Total Rs 123.7 Crore
Average Salary Rs 12.37 Crore

Based on a 2024 report by Forbes India, the average IPL salary among the top 10 highest-paid players is ₹12.37 Crore, the second-highest of sports leagues in the world. Because players in the IPL are contracted only for the duration of the tournament – less than two months – the weekly IPL salaries are extrapolated pro data to obtain an average annual salary, unlike other sports leagues in which players are contracted by a single team for the entire year.

According to a report by The Telegraph, IPL players are paid 18% of the revenue, which is the lowest amount compared to other major sports leagues, in which players receive at least 50% of the revenue. The Federation of International Cricketers' Associations said that IPL players must be paid fairly.

Prize money

The 2022 season of the IPL offered total prize money of 46.5 crore (equivalent to ₹49 crore or US$6.2 million in 2023), with the winning team netting ₹20 crore (equivalent to ₹21 crore or US$2.7 million in 2023) and the second-placed team ₹13 crore (equivalent to ₹14 crore or US$1.7 million in 2023). League rules mandate that half of any prize money must be distributed amongst the franchise's players.

Unique rules and variations

The IPL has several rules which vary from the established Laws of cricket or those used in other Twenty20 (T20) leagues:

Teams

Current teams

As of the 2024 season, the league has ten teams based in cities across India.

Team City State Home ground Debut Captain Head coach Owner(s)
Chennai Super Kings Chennai Tamil Nadu M. A. Chidambaram Stadium 2008 Ruturaj Gaikwad Stephen Fleming Chennai Super Kings Cricket Ltd.
Delhi Capitals New Delhi Delhi Arun Jaitley Stadium 2008 Rishabh Pant Ricky Ponting GMR Sports Pvt. Ltd.

JSW Sports Pvt. Ltd.

Gujarat Titans Ahmedabad Gujarat Narendra Modi Stadium 2022 Shubman Gill Ashish Nehra CVC Capital Partners
Kolkata Knight Riders Kolkata West Bengal Eden Gardens 2008 Shreyas Iyer Chandrakant Pandit Knight Riders Sports Pvt. Ltd.
Lucknow Super Giants Lucknow Uttar Pradesh BRSABV Ekana Stadium 2022 KL Rahul Justin Langer RP-Sanjiv Goenka Group
Mumbai Indians Mumbai Maharashtra Wankhede Stadium 2008 Hardik Pandya Mark Boucher Indiawin Sports Pvt. Ltd.
Punjab Kings Mullanpur Punjab Maharaja Yadavindra Singh International Cricket Stadium 2008 Shikhar Dhawan Trevor Bayliss KPH Dream Cricket Pvt. Ltd.
Rajasthan Royals Jaipur Rajasthan Sawai Mansingh Stadium 2008 Sanju Samson Kumar Sangakara The Royals Sports Group
Royal Challengers Bengaluru Bengaluru Karnataka M. Chinnaswamy Stadium 2008 Faf du Plessis Andy Flower United Spirits
Sunrisers Hyderabad Hyderabad Telangana Rajiv Gandhi Stadium 2013 Pat Cummins Daniel Vettori SUN TV Network

Defunct teams

Team City State Home ground Debut Dissolved Owner(s)
Deccan Chargers Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh Rajiv Gandhi Stadium 2008 2012
Kochi Tuskers Kerala Kochi Kerala Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium 2011 2011
  • Kochi Cricket Pvt Ltd
Pune Warriors India Pune Maharashtra Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium 2011 2013
Rising Pune Supergiant Pune Maharashtra Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium 2016 2018
Gujarat Lions Rajkot Gujarat Saurashtra Cricket Association Stadium 2016 2018

Timeline of teams

Present teams Former teams Suspended

Tournament seasons and results

Chennai Super Kings and Mumbai Indians have each won five titles, the most in the tournament. Kolkata Knight Riders have won three titles, while Rajasthan Royals, Deccan Chargers, Sunrisers Hyderabad and Gujarat Titans have each won a single title.

The reigning champions are the Kolkata Knight Riders, who defeated the Sunrisers Hyderabad by eight wickets in the 2024 IPL final to secure their third title.

Number of titles

Team Title(s) Runner-up Seasons won Seasons runner-up No. of
playoffs played
No. of seasons
played
Chennai Super Kings 5 5 2010, 2011, 2018, 2021, 2023 2008, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2019 12 15
Mumbai Indians 1 2013, 2015, 2017, 2019, 2020 2010 10 17
Kolkata Knight Riders 3 2012, 2014, 2024 2021 8 17
Sunrisers Hyderabad 1 2 2016 2018, 2024 7 12
Rajasthan Royals 1 2008 2022 6 15
Gujarat Titans 2022 2023 2 3
Deccan Chargers 2009 2 5
Royal Challengers Bengaluru 3 2009, 2011, 2016 9 17
Delhi Capitals 1 2020 6 17
Punjab Kings 2014 2 17
Rising Pune Supergiant 2017 1 2

† Team now defunct

Finals

Year Final Final venue Player of the season
Winner Result Runner-up
2008 Rajasthan Royals
164/7 (20 overs)
RR won by 3 wickets
(scorecard)
Chennai Super Kings
163/5 (20 overs)
DY Patil Stadium, Navi Mumbai Shane Watson (RR)
2009 Deccan Chargers
143/6 (20 overs)
DEC won by 6 runs
(scorecard)
Royal Challengers Bangalore
137/9 (20 overs)
Wanderers Stadium, Johannesburg Adam Gilchrist (DEC)
2010 Chennai Super Kings
168/5 (20 overs)
CSK won by 22 runs
(scorecard)
Mumbai Indians
146/9 (20 overs)
DY Patil Stadium, Navi Mumbai Sachin Tendulkar (MI)
2011 Chennai Super Kings
205/5 (20 overs)
CSK won by 58 runs
(scorecard)
Royal Challengers Bangalore
147/8 (20 overs)
M. A. Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai Chris Gayle (RCB)
2012 Kolkata Knight Riders
192/5 (19.4 overs)
KKR won by 5 wickets
(scorecard)
Chennai Super Kings
190/3 (20 overs)
M. A. Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai Sunil Narine (KKR)
2013 Mumbai Indians
148/9 (20 overs)
MI won by 23 runs
(scorecard)
Chennai Super Kings
125/9 (20 overs)
Eden Gardens, Kolkata Shane Watson (RR)
2014 Kolkata Knight Riders
200/7 (19.3 overs)
KKR won by 3 wickets
(scorecard)
Kings XI Punjab
199/4 (20 overs)
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bengaluru Glenn Maxwell (KXIP)
2015 Mumbai Indians
202/5 (20 overs)
MI won by 41 runs
(scorecard)
Chennai Super Kings
161/8 (20 overs)
Eden Gardens, Kolkata Andre Russell (KKR)
2016 Sunrisers Hyderabad
208/7 (20 overs)
SRH won by 8 runs
(scorecard)
Royal Challengers Bangalore
200/7 (20 overs)
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bengaluru Virat Kohli (RCB)
2017 Mumbai Indians
129/8 (20 overs)
MI won by 1 run
(scorecard)
Rising Pune Supergiant
128/6 (20 overs)
Rajiv Gandhi Stadium, Hyderabad Ben Stokes (RPS)
2018 Chennai Super Kings
181/2 (18.3 overs)
CSK won by 8 wickets
(scorecard)
Sunrisers Hyderabad
178/6 (20 overs)
Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai Sunil Narine (KKR)
2019 Mumbai Indians
149/8 (20 overs)
MI won by 1 run
(scorecard)
Chennai Super Kings
148/7 (20 overs)
Rajiv Gandhi Stadium, Hyderabad Andre Russell (KKR)
2020 Mumbai Indians
157/5 (18.4 overs)
MI won by 5 wickets
(scorecard)
Delhi Capitals
156/7 (20 overs)
Dubai International Cricket Stadium, Dubai Jofra Archer (RR)
2021 Chennai Super Kings
192/3 (20 overs)
CSK won by 27 runs
(scorecard)
Kolkata Knight Riders
165/9 (20 overs)
Dubai International Cricket Stadium, Dubai Harshal Patel (RCB)
2022 Gujarat Titans
133/3 (18.1 overs)
GT won by 7 wickets
(scorecard)
Rajasthan Royals
130/9 (20 overs)
Narendra Modi Stadium, Ahmedabad Jos Buttler (RR)
2023 Chennai Super Kings
171/5 (15 overs)
CSK won by 5 wickets (DLS-method)
(scorecard)
Gujarat Titans
214/4 (20 overs)
Narendra Modi Stadium, Ahmedabad Shubman Gill (GT)
2024 Kolkata Knight Riders
114/2 (10.3 overs)
KKR won by 8 wickets

(scorecard)

Sunrisers Hyderabad
113/10 (18.3 overs)
M. A. Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai Sunil Narine (KKR)

Teams' performances

Seasons

Season
(No. of teams)
2008
(8)
2009
(8)
2010
(8)
2011
(10)
2012
(9)
2013
(9)
2014
(8)
2015
(8)
2016
(8)
2017
(8)
2018
(8)
2019
(8)
2020
(8)
2021
(8)
2022
(10)
2023
(10)
2024
(10)
Chennai Super Kings RU SF C C RU RU PO RU Suspended C RU 7th C 9th C 5th
Delhi Capitals / Delhi Daredevils SF SF 5th 10th PO 9th 8th 7th 6th 6th 8th PO RU PO 5th 9th 6th
Gujarat Titans C RU 8th
Kolkata Knight Riders 6th 8th 6th PO C 7th C 5th PO PO PO 5th 5th RU 7th 7th C
Lucknow Super Giants PO PO 7th
Mumbai Indians 5th 7th RU PO PO C PO C 5th C 5th C C 5th 10th PO 10th
Punjab Kings / Kings XI Punjab SF 5th 8th 5th 6th 6th RU 8th 8th 5th 7th 6th 6th 6th 6th 8th 9th
Rajasthan Royals C 6th 7th 6th 7th PO 5th PO Suspended PO 7th 8th 7th RU 5th PO
Royal Challengers Bengaluru 7th RU 3rd RU 5th 5th 7th PO RU 8th 6th 8th PO PO PO 6th PO
Deccan Chargers/Sunrisers Hyderabad 8th C 4th 7th 8th PO 6th 6th C PO RU PO PO 8th 8th 10th RU
Kochi Tuskers Kerala 8th
Pune Warriors / Pune Warriors India 9th 9th 8th
Gujarat Lions PO 7th
Rising Pune Supergiant 7th RU

† Team now defunct

Position of teams in IPL

Year 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th
2008 RR (C) KXIP CSK (R) DD MI KKR RCB DC
2009 DD CSK RCB (R) DC (C) KXIP RR MI KKR
2010 MI (R) DC CSK (C) RCB DD KKR RR KXIP
2011 RCB (R) CSK (C) MI KKR KXIP RR DC KTK PWI DD
2012 DD KKR (C) MI CSK (R) RCB KXIP RR DC PWI
2013 CSK (R) MI (C) RR SRH RCB KXIP KKR PWI DC
2014 KXIP (R) KKR (C) CSK MI RR SRH RCB DC
2015 CSK (R) MI (C) RCB RR KKR SRH DC KXIP
2016 GL RCB (R) SRH (C) KKR MI DC RPS KXIP
2017 MI (C) RPS (R) SRH KKR KXIP DC GL RCB
2018 SRH (R) CSK (C) KKR RR MI RCB KXIP DC
2019 MI (C) CSK (R) DC SRH KKR KXIP RR RCB
2020 MI (C) DC (R) SRH RCB KKR KXIP CSK RR
2021 DC CSK (C) RCB KKR (R) MI PBKS RR SRH
2022 GT (C) RR (R) LSG RCB DC PBKS KKR SRH CSK MI
2023 GT (R) CSK (C) LSG MI RR RCB KKR PBKS DC SRH
2024 KKR (C) SRH (R) RR RCB CSK DC LSG GT KXIP MI
(C) = Eventual champion; (R) = Runner-up.

All time standings

This section shows records from the league stage only (i.e. excluding playoffs & finals) from 2008–2024. Stats are correct as of conclusion of league stage of IPL 2024.

Source: ESPNCricinfo.com (Last updated: 26 May 2024) Current teams
Team Appearances Best result Statistics
Total First Latest Played Won Lost Tied+W Tied+L NR Win%
Chennai Super Kings 15 2008 2024 Champions (2010, 2011, 2018, 2021, 2023) 239 138 98 0 1 2 57.74
Mumbai Indians 17 2008 2024 Champions (2013, 2015, 2017, 2019, 2020) 261 142 115 2 2 0 54.40
Kolkata Knight Riders 17 2008 2024 Champions (2012, 2014, 2024) 252 130 117 1 3 0 52.40
Gujarat Titans 3 2022 2024 Champions (2022) 45 28 17 0 0 0 62.22
Rajasthan Royals 15 2008 2024 Champions (2008) 222 110 106 2 1 2 50.91
Sunrisers Hyderabad 12 2013 2024 Champions (2016) 182 87 91 1 3 0 49.17
Royal Challengers Bengaluru 17 2008 2024 Runners-up (2009, 2011, 2016) 256 121 128 2 1 4 48.61
Punjab Kings 17 2008 2024 Runners-up (2014) 246 109 133 3 1 0 45.12
Delhi Capitals 17 2008 2024 Runners-up (2020) 252 112 134 3 1 2 44.44
Lucknow Super Giants 3 2022 2024 Eliminator (2022, 2023) 44 24 19 0 0 1 54.54
Deccan Chargers 5 2008 2012 Champions (2009) 75 29 46 0 0 0 38.66
Rising Pune Supergiant 2 2016 2017 Runners-up (2017) 30 15 15 0 0 0 50.00
Gujarat Lions 2 2016 2017 Qualifier 2 (2016) 30 13 16 0 1 0 45.00
Kochi Tuskers Kerala 1 2011 2011 Group Stage (2011) 14 6 8 0 0 0 42.85
Pune Warriors India 3 2011 2013 Group Stage (2011, 2012, 2013) 46 12 33 0 0 1 26.67
Team now defunct

Records and statistics

A summary of the most notable statistical records associated with the tournament is provided below:

As of 22 May 2024
Batting Records
Most runs Virat Kohli (RCB) 8,004
Highest score Chris Gayle (RCB) 175* vs Pune Warriors (23 April 2013)
Highest partnership Virat Kohli & AB de Villiers (RCB) 229 vs Gujarat Lions (14 May 2016)
Most sixes Chris Gayle (KKR/RCB/PBKS) 357
Most fours Shikhar Dhawan (DD/MI/DC/SRH/PBKS) 768
Most centuries Virat Kohli (RCB) 8
Most half centuries David Warner (SRH/DC) 66
Most runs in a season Virat Kohli (RCB) 973 (2016)
Bowling Records
Most wickets Yuzvendra Chahal (MI/RCB/RR) 205
Best bowling average Lasith Malinga (MI) 19.79 (Minimum 1000 balls)
Most hat-tricks Amit Mishra (DD/DC/SRH/LSG) 3
Best bowling figures Alzarri Joseph (MI) 6/12 vs Sunrisers Hyderabad (6 April 2019)
Most wickets in a season Harshal Patel (RCB) 32 (2021)
Dwayne Bravo (CSK) 32 (2013)
Fielding
Most dismissals (wicket-keeper) MS Dhoni (CSK/RPS) 190
Most catches (wicket-keeper) MS Dhoni (CSK/RPS) 148
Most stumpings (wicket-keeper) MS Dhoni (CSK/RPS) 42
Most catches (fielder) Virat Kohli (RCB) 114
Other records
Most matches MS Dhoni (CSK/RPS) 264
Most matches as captain MS Dhoni (CSK/RPS) 226
Most matches won as captain MS Dhoni (CSK/RPS) 133
Team records
Highest total Sunrisers Hyderabad 287/3 (20) vs Royal Challengers Bengaluru (15 April 2024)
Lowest total Royal Challengers Bengaluru 49 (9.4) vs Kolkata Knight Riders (23 April 2017)

Awards

Orange Cap

The Orange Cap is awarded to the highest run-scorer at the end of each season. It is an ongoing competition with the current highest-run scorer wearing the cap whilst fielding. The eventual winner keeps the cap for the season. Brendon McCullum was the first player to wear the Orange Cap and Shaun Marsh the inaugural winner of the award. Australian batsman David Warner has won the award three times, more than any other player. Shubman Gill of Gujarat Titans, who scored 890 runs during the 2023 season, is the most recent winner of the award.

Purple Cap

The Purple Cap is awarded to the highest wicket-taker at the end of each season. It is an ongoing competition and the bowler who is the leading wicket-taker wears a purple cap whilst fielding. The eventual winner keeps the cap for the season. Bhuvneshwar Kumar and Dwayne Bravo are the only players to have won the award twice. Mohammed Shami of Gujarat Titans who took 28 wickets during the 2023 season, is the most recent winner of the award.

Most Valuable Player

The Most Valuable Player award, formerly called the "Man of the Tournament" until the 2012 season, is awarded using a ratings system introduced in 2013. Sunil Narine won the award in 2024.

Fair Play Award

The Fair Play Award is given after each season to the team considered to have the best fair play record. After each match, the two on-field umpires and the third umpire score the performance of both teams, with the highest-scoring team at the end of the season receiving the award. The 2024 winners were Sunrisers Hyderabad.

Emerging Player Award

The Emerging Player Award was presented to the best under-19 player in 2008 and the best under-23 player in 2009 and 2010. In 2011 and 2012, the award was known as "Rising Star of the Year," and in 2013 the "Best Young Player of the Season." Since 2014, the award has been called the Emerging Player of the Year. Mustafizur Rahman is the only foreign player to win this award. The 2024 winner was Nitish Kumar Reddy.

Maximum Sixes Award

The Maximum Sixes Award is presented to the player who hits the most sixes at the end of the season.

Finances

Title sponsorship

Title sponsorship fees
Sponsor Period Estimated annual sponsorship fee
DLF 2008–2012 ₹40 crore (US$5.0 million)
Pepsi 2013–2015 ₹79.2 crore (US$9.9 million)
Vivo 2016, 2017 ₹100 crore (US$12.5 million)
2018, 2019, 2021 ₹440 crore (US$55.1 million)
Dream11 2020 ₹222 crore (US$27.8 million)
Tata 2022–2023 ₹335 crore (US$42.0 million)
2024–2028 ₹500 crore (US$62.6 million)

From 2008 to 2012, the IPL title sponsor was DLF, India's largest real estate developer, which bid ₹200 crore (US$25 million) for the rights for five seasons. After the 2012 season, PepsiCo bought the title sponsorship rights for ₹397 crore (US$50 million) for the next five seasons but terminated the deal in October 2015, two years before the expiry of the contract, due to the two-season suspension of the Chennai and Rajasthan franchises from the league. The BCCI transferred the title sponsorship rights for the remaining two seasons of the contract to Chinese smartphone manufacturer Vivo for ₹200 crore (US$25 million).

In June 2017, Vivo retained the rights for the next five seasons from 2018 to 2022 with a winning bid of ₹2,199 crore (US$280 million). On 4 August 2020, Vivo canceled the title sponsorship rights due to the military stand-off between India and China at the Line of Actual Control in July 2020. The withdrawal was also a result of Vivo's market losses due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic; Vivo intended to return as the title sponsor for the following three years. Dream11 became the title sponsors for the 2020 IPL for an amount of ₹222 crore (equivalent to ₹261 crore or US$33 million in 2023). Vivo returned as the title sponsor for the 2021 IPL season but withdrew again, and was replaced by the Tata Group for the next two seasons. InsideSport reported the BCCI would receive ₹498 crore (US$62 million) for the 2022 and 2023 seasons from title sponsors. Vivo had previously agreed to pay a higher amount for the last two seasons of its sponsorship contract due to the league's expansion from the 2022 season. According to InsideSport, due to the new deal's structure, Tata would pay ₹335 crore (US$42 million) per year while Vivo would pay the deficit of ₹163 crore (US$20 million) per season.

Saudi Aramco brought the rights to advertise on the Purple and Orange caps in 2022.

Payments to foreign national boards

The BCCI pays ten per cent of the auctioned value of players to their national cricket boards. In January 2018, IPL chairman Rajiv Shukla said the IPL would double the amount paid to cricket boards that made their players available for an entire season. In 2022, Australian Cricketers' Association expressed its unhappiness about this.

Brand value

Crowd during a match of the 2023 IPL season in Kolkata

The IPL tournament rapidly grew in value between 2016 and 2018. Financial experts valued the IPL at US$4.16 billion in 2016; that number grew to $5.3 billion in 2017 and $6.13 billion in 2018. A report from Duff & Phelps said one of the contributing factors in the rapid growth of the IPL's value was a new television deal with Star India Private Limited, which engaged more viewers because the IPL was transmitted to regional channels in eight languages; under the previous deal, the transmissions were limited to sports networks with English-language commentary.

According to an independent report conducted by Brand Finance, a London-based company, after the conclusion of the 2017 Indian Premier League, the IPL's business value grew by 37% to an all-time peak of $5.3 billion, exceeding the five-billion-dollar mark for the first time in a season. According to the company's director Savio D'Souza:

Now in its 11th season, the Indian Premier League is here to stay. The league has delivered financially for the players, franchisees, sponsors, and India as a whole, prompting a strong desire among stakeholders to value it appropriately. To ensure continued development, management, and team owners must explore innovative ways of engaging fans, clubs, and sponsors.

In December 2022, the IPL became a decacorn valued at US$10.9 billion, registering a 75% growth in dollar terms since 2020 when it was valued at $6.2 billion, according to a report by consulting firm D & P Advisory.

Brand value
Team Year
2023 2022 2021
Brand value Ref Brand value Ref Brand value Ref
Mumbai Indians ₹9,962 crore (US$1.2 billion) $83M $80M
Chennai Super Kings ₹8,811 crore (US$1.1 billion) $74M $76M
Kolkata Knight Riders ₹8,428 crore (US$1.1 billion) $77M $66M
Lucknow Super Giants ₹8,236 crore (US$1.0 billion) $32M N/A
Delhi Capitals ₹7,930 crore (US$993.1 million) $62M $56M
Royal Challengers Bengaluru ₹7,853 crore (US$983.5 million) $68M $50M
Rajasthan Royals ₹7,662 crore (US$959.5 million) $61M $34M
Sunrisers Hyderabad ₹7,432 crore (US$930.7 million) $49M $52M
Punjab Kings ₹7,087 crore (US$887.5 million) $45M $36M
Gujarat Titans ₹6,512 crore (US$815.5 million) $47M N/A

In 2022, the BCCI took insurance of ₹5,000 crore (US$630 million) for the IPL. This insurance policy involves all stakeholders, including broadcasters, ancillary services providers, and sponsors. The BCCI is covered in the case of any revenue losses due to weather, riots, and other unforeseen events.

Broadcasting

2023–2027: Star Sports and JioCinema

The next cycle of IPL media rights will last from 2023 to 2027 and will be put to auction. In this auction, the broadcasting rights were divided into four packages. Package A was for domestic television rights, and Package B was for domestic digital rights. Package C was for the digital rights of eighteen non-exclusive matches, and Package D was for international television and digital rights, further divided into four groups. On 13 June 2022, it was reported the packages for domestic television and streaming rights had fetched at least ₹397.75 billion (nearly US$5.1 billion) in total, doubling the value of the 2018–2022 contract.

The next day, it was announced that Star Sports had renewed its contract for television rights by winning package A, and that a Viacom18 consortium had exclusively acquired the streaming rights by winning both Package B and C. The two contracts for Package A and B are cumulatively valued at around US$6.2 billion; with the new contracts, the IPL overtook the Premier League in English football as the second highest-valued sports media property worldwide, behind only the NFL, whose new media contracts taking effect in the 2023 season cumulatively fetched US$111 billion.

In February 2023, Viacom18 announced it would stream the 2023 IPL for free on JioCinema with feeds in 12 languages, including English and regional languages, and in 4K resolution. The same month, The Walt Disney Company reported its loss of the IPL had contributed to a net loss of 2.4 million Disney+ subscribers worldwide, primarily in India.

Ahead of the 2023 IPL, Star launched HD feeds of Star Sports 1 in Tamil and Telugu and announced its free-to-air channel Star Utsav Movies would carry twelve matches. It was anticipated viewership of Star Sports' broadcasts may not be heavily impacted by the Jio deal due to its existing market reach (including as rights holder of India's home matches) and viewers who preferred linear television due to being less familiar with over-the-top services, or concerns over technical issues associated with such services. JioCinema reported the IPL had 1.4 billion views on the service over the opening weekend, which was higher than the entirety of the 2022 season on Disney+ Hotstar. The 2023 final set a record for the most concurrent viewers of a livestreamed event, peaking at over 32 million viewers (surpassing a record of 25.3 million set by Hotstar during the 2019 Cricket World Cup).

List of broadcasters

Territory Channels and Online streaming Years
 India Star Sports 1 HD
Star Sports 1 Hindi HD
Star Sports 1 Kannada
Star Sports 1 Tamil HD
Star Sports 1 Telugu HD
Star Gold HD
Star Bharat SD
Star Utsav Movies SD
Star Jalsa Movies SD
Star Maa Movies SD
Star Suvarna Plus SD
Star Vijay Super SD
2024–2027
Jio Cinema (Internet) 2024–2027
 Afghanistan ATN HD
ATN News HD
2024
Ariana Television (Internet) 2024
 Australia Foxtel
Fox Cricket
Kayo Sports
2023–present
Kayo Freebies (Internet) 2023–present
 Bangladesh T Sports HD 2024
T Sports APP 2024
 Indonesia Vidio (Internet) 2023
 New Zealand Colors TV 2024–present
 Pakistan Tapmad APP 2024
 Ireland Sky Sports
DAZN
2023–present
 United Kingdom
 South Africa SuperSport 2023
 Sri Lanka Supreme TV 2023–present
The Papare.com
 United States Willow TV 2023
Middle East and North Africa Times Internet 2023
Sub-Saharan Africa SuperSport 2021–present

Controversies

IPL spot fixing

In the 2012 IPL spot-fixing case, the BCCI gave a lifetime ban to Deccan Chargers player TP Sudhindra and suspended four other players. In a sting operation, Pune Warriors India player Mohnish Mishra was recorded stating that IPL franchise owners pay their players through black money. Mishra had later apologized for his incorrect statement. On 20 May 2012, police detained Rahul Sharma and Wayne Parnell when they were caught during a raid at a rave party at a suburb of Mumbai; both the players denied taking drugs or drinking alcohol. However, it was later proven that in reality, they had taken banned drugs after police tested their urine and blood samples in a lab.

In the 2013 IPL spot-fixing and betting case, Delhi police arrested players Ajit Chandila, Ankeet Chavan and S. Sreesanth on allegations of spot-fixing; they received a lifetime ban from the BCCI.


Illegal Betting

In the same year police also arrested Gurunath Meiyappan, Chennai Super Kings' team principal and son-in-law of then BCCI president N. Srinivasan, for illegally betting on IPL matches and passing team information to the bookmakers.

The Lodha Committee, appointed by the Supreme Court of India, banned Rajasthan Royals (RR) and Chennai Super Kings (CSK) for two years. The CSK's team principal Meiyappan was found guilty of betting and bringing the IPL and the game into disrepute. After this, the BCCI banned Meiyappan from involving in the game. Justice RM Lodha said that due to all this fixing-betting matter, the reputation of the game had been hurt quite grievously. "Disrepute has been brought to cricket, the BCCI and the IPL to such an extent that there are doubts abound in the public whether the game is clean or not," Justice Lodha said. He further elaborated his Committee's observations and said it had proved beyond doubt that Gurunath Meiyappan, the CSK's team principal, was heavily involved in betting on his team.

Strategic timeouts

In its 3rd season in 2010, the IPL administration brought a new rule: "strategic timeout" of seven minutes and fifty seconds duration in each inning. Franchises and Sachin Tendulkar disapproved of it. Many saw it as the BCCI's use of 'extended drinks break' to earn money; it faced widespread backlash. Then IPL president said that the rule is intended to allow teams to make strategies amid the game. Still, critics disagreed with this argument and said that the strategic time-out is a way to generate money. Later, the BCCI reduced its duration but still applied it.

These timeouts boost the IPL's revenue; every 10-second slot gets sold for ₹5 lakhs or more. Due to these time-outs, an IPL match halts four times for more than 10 minutes. As per Sunil Gavaskar, along with many other reasons, strategic timeouts delay the IPL matches, and they do not end at the stipulated time of 3 hours and 10 minutes, instead end after 4 hours. Amid the Super Giants against Mumbai Indians eliminator game in 2023, on-air he uttered, "How many times batsmen get out after a strategic timeout," indicating that it plays negative role in immediate fall of wickets by disrupting concentration of the batters.

Some cricketers have criticized strategic timeouts for interrupting the flow of play. In the past, it even faced Public Interest Litigation (PIL) with the possibility that ST breaks were being used by bookies to connect with the players. In the past, IPL's stakeholders admitted that STs are unavoidable because they give the BCCI and broadcasters additional time for more ads. In 2013, after a spot-fixing matter, then-president N. Srinivasan got sacked due to a pending inquiry, and Jagmohan Dalmia got appointed as interim president. Dalmia expressed openly that he wants to end STs and take other measures to restrain malpractices in the IPL.

Incidents with players

In the 2008 edition, after a game, Harbhajan Singh, who was playing for Mumbai Indians, slapped S. Sreesanth. The IPL fined and banned him from the remaining entire edition. However, years later, he apologized to Sreesanth for it on TV and said that he was ashamed for doing it.

In a 2022 interview, Yuzvendra Chahal revealed two incidents of physical harassment that happened with him, while he was with Mumbai Indians. In 2013, at a party of the team in a building, a drunken teammate took him to the balcony, overpowered him and hung him from the 15th floor of the building. Yuzvendra said he narrowly survived that day. In another incident, two teammates including Andrew Symonds tied him, gagged his mouth and threw him in a room of the hotel. He remained the whole night alone in that room. When the hotel room service arrived in the morning, they untied his hands and legs. He did not reveal the names of the offenders involved in the first incident. Reacting to these revelations, Virender Sehwag expressed that he wanted Yuzvendra to reveal the offender's name and furious Ravi Shastri expressed that the offender should be banned.

In 2010, the BCCI banned Ravindra Jadeja from the IPL for one year after he violated the IPL guidelines by not signing a renewal contract with his team Rajasthan Royals, and instead negotiated a more lucrative contract with other teams through the back door.

Rajasthan Royals ownership dispute

In April 2010, the BCCI president Shashank Manohar said in a press conference that the IPL governing council didn't know who the owners of Rajasthan Royals (RR) and the Punjab team are. The initial bid for RR was made by a person named Manoj Bhandale. After that, other firms from Mauritius were added as shareholders. In response, Shilpa Shetty tweeted that she was a proprietor of RR. Regarding the Punjab team, Manohar revealed that in the team bidding event, only Preity Zinta was interested in buying that team. She said that she would form a firm. She did it and signed a bid agreement with the BCCI. However, Preity did not have a single share in her name in that firm. Manohar alleged that Shetty and Zinta violated the agreement as prior permission of the BCCI is mandatory before transferring ownership shares with other people.

N. Srinivasan's ownership of CSK

In 2010, an e-mail leaked in Indian media, according to an Economic Times article, said that former IPL president Lalit Modi helped then-BCCI president N. Srinivasan to buy Andrew Flintoff in the auction for his team Chennai Super Kings (CSK). Srinivasan was criticized for owning an IPL team due to his conflict of interests. Former BCCI president A. Muthiah filed a lawsuit against Srinivasan in the Supreme Court of India; he claimed that Srinivasan altered the BCCI's rules to allow himself to purchase a team. The Lodha Committee banned CSK from the IPL for two years when their team principal, Gurunath Meiyappan, was found guilty of betting and providing inside information to bookies. The supreme court criticized Srinivasan for buying an IPL team while serving as the BCCI president; a judge commented, "How can a BCCI chief own a team?". However, he still own the team and his daughter Rupa Gurunath often appear in stadiums amid CSK's games.

Australian players' dispute with their board

Due to the BCCI giving one-tenth of foreign players' salaries to their respective country's national cricket boards, a dispute between Australian cricketers and Cricket Australia started. The Australian Cricketers' Association also opposed the arrangement.

Shashi Tharoor and Sunanda Pushkar's sweat equity in RSW

In 2010, the IPL president revealed that the Minister of State for External Affairs Shashi Tharoor's wife Sunanda Pushkar has sweat equity share in Rendezvous Sports World (RSW), the proprietor of Kochi Tuskers Kerala team. Opposition party BJP agitated against the Indian National Congress. Later, it was revealed that Pushkar has ₹70 crore equity in RSW. Tharoor offered to leave his equity, but many within the Congress party felt that by doing this, Tharoor pleaded guilty. Due to pressure, the Congress party demanded his resignation. He was the first minister of United Progressive Alliance 2 who got slammed for his illegal moves.

Slow over rates

The IPL frequently gets criticism due to the slow pace of its matches. During the 2023 season, Jos Buttler mentioned on Twitter to speed up the pace of the play. An IPL match should end within 3:10 hours of the stipulated time, but it often ends after 4 hours. As per Gavaskar, strategic timeouts, reserve players running on the field with drinks and messages amid games, and batsmen asking for helmets result in these delays. The introduction of strategic timeouts was also suspected to be for monetary reasons since it allows for more ad slots. Field umpires sometimes penalize teams by restricting them to field just four fielders outside the 30-yard area, or match referees penalize by cutting captain's – team members' match fees, but it has not solved the problem. Games often run at a slow speed and finish late. During the 2024 season, Rishabh Pant, captain of Delhi Capitals, and Shubman Gill of Gujarat Titans were fined ₹12 lakhs each for their teams' slow over rates during matches against the Chennai Super Kings. Millions of viewers feel that IPL matches should be fast-paced.

Negative impact on international cricket

Former India captain Kapil Dev claimed that there was an increasing risk of injury to Indian players from playing in the IPL. He felt that some players avoided the national team's matches, yet appear in all of their IPL fixtures.

Exclusion of Pakistani players

Following the November 2008 terrorist attacks in Mumbai and the attack on Sri Lankan team in March 2009, geopolitical tensions surged between India and Pakistan. It led to several outcomes, one led to Pakistani players being unofficially forbidden to play in the IPL. While they had been selected by several teams for the inaugural IPL season (2008), their contracts were terminated before the 2009 edition. This situation endured "due to political tensions". Among critics of BCCI and IPL owners is Imran Khan, who has said they "take it out on Pakistan players". He accused the BCCI of "arrogance" but also stated that "Pakistan should not worry about it".

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ Indian cricket leagues established using similar formats to the IPL include the Women's Premier League and various domestic state-level leagues. Leagues established in other sports include the association football Indian Super League, the Pro Kabaddi League and Pro Volleyball League Other international leagues have also adopted elements of the IPL and been influenced by the business model used.

See also

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