Clipperton Island

Appearance move to sidebar hide

Clipperton
Native name: La Passion–Clipperton (French)
Clipperton Atoll with enclosed lagoon with depths (metres)Clipperton Atoll with lagoon with depths (metres)
A view of the location of Clipperton Island on a mapLocation of Clipperton Island
Geography
LocationPacific Ocean
Coordinates10°18′N 109°13′W / 10.300°N 109.217°W / 10.300; -109.217
ArchipelagoLagoon
Area8.9 km2 (3.4 sq mi)
Length3 km (1.9 mi)
Width4 km (2.5 mi)
Coastline11.1 km (6.9 mi)
Highest elevation29 m (95 ft)
Highest pointClipperton Rock
Administration
France
State private propertyÎle de Clipperton
Demographics
Population0 (1945)
Additional information
Time zone
Postal code98799

Clipperton Island (French: La Passion–Clipperton ; Spanish: Isla de la Pasión), also known as Clipperton Atoll and previously as Clipperton's Rock, is an 8.9 km2 (3.4 sq mi) uninhabited French coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The only French territory in the North Pacific, Clipperton is 10,675 km (6,633 mi) from Paris, France; 5,400 km (2,900 nmi) from Papeete, French Polynesia; and 1,280 km (690 nmi) from Acapulco, Mexico.

Clipperton was documented by French merchant-explorers in 1711 and formally claimed as part of the French protectorate of Tahiti in 1858. Despite this, American guano miners began working the island in the early 1890s. As interest in the island grew, Mexico asserted a claim to the island based upon Spanish records from the 1520s that may have identified the island. Mexico established a small military colony on the island in 1905, but during the Mexican Revolution contact with the mainland became infrequent, most of the colonists died, and lighthouse keeper Victoriano Álvarez instituted a short, brutal reign as "king" of the island. Eleven survivors were rescued in 1917 and Clipperton was abandoned.

The dispute between Mexico and France over Clipperton was taken to binding international arbitration in 1909. Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy, was chosen as arbitrator and decided in 1931 that the island was French territory. Despite the ruling, Clipperton remained largely uninhabited until 1944 when the U.S. Navy established a weather station on the island to support its war efforts in the Pacific. France protested and as concerns about Japanese activity in the eastern Pacific waned the U.S. abandoned the site in late 1945.

Since the end of World War II, Clipperton has primarily been the site for scientific expeditions to study the island's wildlife and marine life, including its significant masked and brown booby colonies. It has also hosted climate scientists and amateur radio DX-peditions. Plans to develop the island for trade and tourism have been considered, but none have been enacted and the island remains mostly uninhabited with periodic visits from the French navy.

Geography

Location of Clipperton Island

The coral island is located at 10°18′N 109°13′W / 10.300°N 109.217°W / 10.300; -109.217 (Clipperton Island) in the East Pacific, 1,080 km (583 nmi) southwest of Mexico, 2,424 km (1,309 nmi) west of Nicaragua, 2,545 km (1,374 nmi) west of Costa Rica and 2,390 km (1,290 nmi) northwest of the Galápagos Islands in Ecuador. The nearest land is Socorro Island, about 945 km (510 nmi) to the south-east in the Revillagigedo Archipelago. The nearest French-owned island is Hiva Oa in the Marquesas Islands of French Polynesia.

Despite its proximity to North America, Clipperton is often considered one of the eastern-most points of Oceania due to being part the French Indo-Pacific, and to commonalities between its marine fauna and the marine fauna of Hawaii and Kiribati's Line Islands, with the island sitting along the migration path for animals in the Eastern Tropical Pacific region. The island is the only emerged part of the East Pacific Rise, as well as the only feature in the Clipperton Fracture Zone that breaks the ocean's surface, and it is one of the few islands in the Pacific that lacks an underwater archipelagic apron.

The atoll is low-lying and largely barren, with some scattered grasses, and a few clumps of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera). The land ring surrounding the lagoon measures 1.7 square kilometres (0.66 sq mi) in area with an average elevation of 2 m (6.6 ft), although a small volcanic outcropping, referred to as Clipperton Rock (Rocher de Clipperton), rises to 29 m (95 ft) on its southeast side. The surrounding 3.7-square-kilometre (1.4 sq mi) reef hosts an abundance of corals and is partly exposed at low tide. In 2001 a geodetic marker was placed to evaluate if the land is rising or sinking.

1899 sketch of Clipperton Rock from the Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, after a photograph

Clipperton Rock is the remains of the island's now extinct volcano's rim; because it includes this rocky outcropping, Clipperton is not a true atoll and is sometimes referred to as a 'near-atoll'. The surrounding reef in combination with the weather makes landing on the island difficult and anchoring offshore hazardous for larger ships; in the 1940s American ships reported active problems in this regard.

Environment

The environment of Clipperton Island has been studied extensively with the first recordings and sample collection being done in the 1800s. Modern research on Clipperton is focused primarily on climate science and migratory wildlife.

The SURPACLIP oceanographic expedition, a joint undertaking by the National Autonomous University of Mexico and the University of New Caledonia Nouméa, made extensive studies of the island in 1997. In 2001, French National Centre for Scientific Research geographer Christian Jost extended the 1997 studies through the French Passion 2001 expedition, which focused on the evolution of Clipperton's ecosystem. In 2003, cinematrographer Lance Milbrand stayed on the island for 41 days, recording the adventure for the National Geographic Explorer and plotting a GPS map of Clipperton for the National Geographic Society.

In 2005, a four-month scientific mission organised by Jean-Louis Étienne made a complete inventory of Clipperton's mineral, plant, and animal species; studied algae as deep as 100 m (328 ft) below sea level; and examined the effects of pollution. A 2008 expedition from the University of Washington's School of Oceanography collected sediment cores from the lagoon to study climate change over the past millennium.

Lagoon

Clipperton Island photographed by the Sentinel-2 satellite.

Clipperton is a ring-shaped atoll that completely encloses a stagnant fresh water lagoon and measures 12 km (7.5 mi) in circumference and 720 hectares (2.8 sq mi) in area. The island is the only coral island in the eastern Pacific. The lagoon is devoid of fish, and is shallow over parts of the eroded coral heads, but contains some deep basins with depths of 43–72 m (141–236 ft), including a spot known as Trou Sans Fond ('the bottomless hole') with acidic water at its base. The water is described as being almost fresh at the surface and highly eutrophic. Seaweed beds cover approximately 45 per cent of the lagoon's surface. The rim averages 150 m (490 ft) in width, reaching 400 m (1,300 ft) in the west, and narrowing to 45 m (148 ft) in the north-east, where sea waves occasionally spill over into the lagoon. Ten islets are present in the lagoon, six of which are covered with vegetation, including the Egg Islands (les îles aux Œufs).

The closure of the lagoon approximately 170 years ago and prevention of seawater from entering the lagoon has formed a meromictic lake. The surface of the lagoon has a high concentration of phytoplankton that vary slightly with the seasons. As a result of this the water columns are stratified and do not mix leaving the lagoon with an oxic and brackish upper water layer and a deep sulfuric anoxic saline layer. At a depth of approximately 15 m (49 ft) the water shifts with salinity rising and both pH and oxygen quickly decreasing. The deepest levels of the lagoon record waters enriched with hydrogen sulfide which prevent the growth of coral. Before the lagoon was closed off to seawater, coral and clams were able to survive in the area as evident by fossilized specimens.: 112 

Studies of the water have found that microbial communities on the water's surface are similar to other water samples from around the world with deeper water samples showing a great diversity of both bacteria and archaea. In 2005, a group of French scientists discovered three dinoflagellate microalgae species in the lagoon: Peridiniopsis cristata, which was abundant; Durinskia baltica, which was known to exist previously in other locations, but was new to Clipperton; and Peridiniopsis cristata var. tubulifera, which is unique to the island. The lagoon also harbours millions of isopods, which are reported to deliver a painful sting.

While some sources have rated the lagoon water as non-potable, testimony from the crew of the tuna clipper M/V Monarch, stranded for 23 days in 1962 after their boat sank, indicates otherwise. Their report reveals that the lagoon water, while "muddy and dirty", was drinkable, despite not tasting very good. Several of the castaways drank it, with no apparent ill effects. Survivors of a Mexican military colony in 1917 (see below) indicated that they were dependent upon rain for their water supply, catching it in old boats. American servicemen on the island during World War II had to use evaporators to purify the lagoon's water. Aside from the lagoon and water caught from rain, no freshwater sources are known to exist.

Climate

The island has a tropical oceanic climate, with average temperatures of 20–32 °C (68–90 °F) and highs up to 37.8 °C (100.0 °F). Annual rainfall is 3,000 to 5,000 millimetres (120 to 200 in), and the humidity level is generally between 85 per cent and 95 per cent with December to March being the drier months. The prevailing winds are the southeast trade winds. The rainy season occurs from May to October, and the region is subject to tropical cyclones from April to September, but such storms often pass to the northeast of Clipperton. In 1997 Clipperton was in the path of the start of Hurricane Felicia, as well as Hurricane Sandra in 2015. In addition, Clipperton has been subjected to multiple tropical storms and depressions including Tropical Storm Andres in 2003. Surrounding ocean waters are warm, pushed by equatorial and counter-equatorial currents and have seen temperature increases due to global warming.

Flora and fauna

A bright-orange Clipperton crab (Johngarthia oceanica)

When Snodgrass and Heller visited in 1898, they reported that "no land plant is native to the island". Historical accounts from 1711, 1825, and 1839 show a low grassy or suffrutescent (partially woody) flora. During Marie-Hélène Sachet's visit in 1958, the vegetation was found to consist of a sparse cover of spiny grass and low thickets, a creeping plant (Ipomoea spp.), and stands of coconut palm. This low-lying herbaceous flora seems to be a pioneer in nature, and most of it is believed to be composed of recently introduced species. Sachet suspected that Heliotropium curassavicum, and possibly Portulaca oleracea, were native. Coconut palms and pigs introduced in the 1890s by guano miners were still present in the 1940s. The largest coconut grove is Bougainville Wood (Bois de Bougainville) on the southwestern end of the island. On the northwest side of the atoll, the most abundant plant species are Cenchrus echinatus, Sida rhombifolia, and Corchorus aestuans. These plants compose a shrub cover up to 30 cm (12 in) in height, and are intermixed with Eclipta, Phyllanthus, and Solanum, as well as the taller Brassica juncea. The islets in the lagoon are primarily vegetated with Cyperaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Ipomoea pes-caprae. A unique feature of Clipperton is that the vegetation is arranged in parallel rows of species, with dense rows of taller species alternating with lower, more open vegetation. This was assumed to be a result of the trench-digging method of phosphate mining used by guano hunters.

The only land animals known to exist are two species of reptiles (the Pacific stump-toed gecko and the copper-tailed skink), bright-orange land crabs known as Clipperton crabs (Johngarthia oceanica, prior to 2019 classified as Johngartia planata), birds, and ship rats. The rats probably arrived when large fishing boats wrecked on the island in 1999 and 2000.

The pigs introduced in the 1890s reduced the crab population, which in turn allowed grassland to gradually cover about 80 per cent of the land surface. The elimination of these pigs in 1958, the result of a personal project by Kenneth E. Stager, caused most of this vegetation to disappear as the population of land crabs recovered. As a result, Clipperton is virtually a sandy desert with only 674 palms counted by Christian Jost during the Passion 2001 French mission and five islets in the lagoon with grass that the terrestrial crabs cannot reach. A 2005 report by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Southwest Fisheries Science Center indicated that the increased rat presence had led to a decline in both crab and bird populations, causing a corresponding increase in both vegetation and coconut palms. This report urgently recommended eradication of rats, so that vegetation might be reduced, and the island might return to its 'pre-human' state.

In 1825, Benjamin Morrell reported finding green sea turtles nesting on Clipperton, but later expeditions have not found nesting turtles there, possibly due to disruption from guano extraction, as well as the introduction of pigs and rats. Sea turtles found on the island appear to have been injured due to fishing practices. Morrell also reported fur and elephant seals on the island in 1825, but they too have not been recorded by later expeditions.

The head of a viper moray (Enchelynassa canina)

Birds are common on the island; Morrell noted in 1825: "The whole island is literally covered with sea-birds, such as gulls, whale-birds, gannets, and the booby". Thirteen species of birds are known to breed on the island and 26 others have been observed as visitors. The island has been identified as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International because of the large breeding colony of masked boobies, with 110,000 individual birds recorded. Observed bird species include white terns, masked boobies, sooty terns, brown boobies, brown noddies, black noddies, great frigatebirds, coots, martins (swallows), cuckoos, and yellow warblers. Ducks and moorhens have been reported in the lagoon.

The coral reef on the north side of the island includes colonies more than 2 metres (6.6 ft) high. The 2018 Tara Pacific expedition located five colonies of Millepora platyphylla at depths of 28–32 metres (92–105 ft), the first of this fire coral species known in the region. Among the Porites spp. stony corals, some bleaching was observed, along with other indications of disease or stress, including parasitic worms and microalgae.

The reefs that surround Clipperton have some of the highest concentration of endemic species found anywhere with more than 115 species identified. Many species are recorded in the area, including five or six endemics, such as Clipperton angelfish (Holacanthus limbaughi), Clipperton grouper (Epinephelus clippertonensis), Clipperton damselfish (Stegastes baldwini) and Robertson's wrasse (Thalassoma robertsoni). Widespread species around the reefs include Pacific creolefish, blue-and-gold snapper, and various species of goatfish. In the water column, trevallies are predominant, including black jacks, bigeye trevally, and bluefin trevally. Also common around Clipperton are black triggerfish;, several species of groupers, including leather bass and starry groupers; Mexican hogfish; whitecheek, convict, and striped-fin surgeonfish; yellow longnose and blacknosed butterflyfish; coral hawkfish; golden pufferfish; Moorish idols; parrotfish; and moray eels, especially speckled moray eels. The population of sharks in the waters around the island was noted to have increased in both density and size of individuals in a 2019 expedition, particularly the population of the white tip shark. Galapagos sharks, reef sharks and hammerhead sharks are also present around Clipperton.

Three expeditions to Clipperton have collected sponge specimens, including U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt's visit in 1938. Of the 190 specimens collected, 20 species were noted, including nine found only at Clipperton. One of the endemic sponges, collected during the 1938 visit, was named Callyspongia roosevelti in honor of Roosevelt.

In April 2009, Steven Robinson, a tropical fish dealer from Hayward, California, traveled to Clipperton to collect Clipperton angelfish. Upon his return to the United States, he described the 52 illegally collected fish to federal wildlife authorities as king angelfish, not the rarer Clipperton angelfish, which he intended to sell for $10,000. On 15 December 2011, Robinson was sentenced to 45 days of incarceration, one year of probation, and a $2,000 fine.

Environmental threats

Freighter Sichem Osprey grounded on Clipperton Island in 2010.

During the night of 10 February 2010, the Sichem Osprey, a Maltese chemical tanker, ran aground en route from the Panama Canal to South Korea. The 170 m (558 ft) ship contained 10,513 metric tons (11,589 short tons) of xylene, 6,005 metric tons (6,619 short tons) of soybean oil, and 6,000 metric tons (6,600 short tons) of tallow.: 43  All 19 crew members were reported safe, and the vessel reported no leaks. The vessel was re-floated on 6 March and returned to service.

In mid-March 2012, the crew from the Clipperton Project noted the widespread presence of refuse, particularly on the northeast shore, and around the Clipperton Rock. Debris, including plastic bottles and containers, create a potentially harmful environment for the island's flora and fauna. This trash is common to only two beaches (northeast and southwest), and the rest of the island is fairly clean. Other refuse has been left after the occupations by Americans 1944–1945, French 1966–1969, and the 2008 scientific expedition. During a 2015 scientific and amateur radio expedition to Clipperton, the operating team discovered a package that contained 1.2 kilograms (2.6 lb) of cocaine. It is suspected that the package washed up after being discarded at sea. In April 2023, the Passion 23 mission by France's Armed Forces in the Antilles and the surveillance frigate Germinal collected more than 200 kilograms (440 lb) of plastic waste from the island's beaches along with a bale of cocaine.

The Sea Around Us Project estimates the Clipperton EEZ produces a harvest of 50,000 metric tons (55,000 short tons) of fish per year; however, because French naval patrols in the area are infrequent, this includes a significant amount of illegal fishing, along with lobster harvesting and shark finning, resulting in estimated losses for France of €0.42 per kilogram of fish caught.

As deep-sea mining of polymetallic nodules increases in the adjacent Clarion–Clipperton Zone, similar mining activity within France's exclusive economic zone surrounding the atoll may have an impact on marine life around Clipperton. Polymetallic nodules were discovered in the Clipperton EEZ during the Passion 2015 expedition.

Politics and government

The island is an overseas state private property of France under direct authority of the Minister of the Overseas. Although the island is French territory, it has no status within the European Union. Ownership of Clipperton Island was disputed in the 19th and early 20th centuries between France and Mexico, but was finally settled through arbitration in 1931; the Clipperton Island Case remains widely studied in international law textbooks.

In the late 1930s, as flying boats opened the Pacific to air travel, Clipperton Island was noted as a possible waypoint for a trans-Pacific route from the Americas to Asia via the Marquesas Islands in French Polynesia, bypassing Hawaii. However, France indicated no interest in developing commercial air traffic in the corridor.

After France ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in 1996, they reaffirmed the exclusive economic zone off Clipperton island which had been established in 1976. After changes were made to the area nations were allowed to claim under the third convention of UNCLOS France in 2018 expanded the outer limits of the territorial sea to 22 km (12 nmi) and the exclusive economic zone off Clipperton Island to 370 km (200 nmi), encompassing 431,273 square kilometres (166,515 sq mi) of ocean.

On 21 February 2007, administration of Clipperton was transferred from the High Commissioner of the Republic in French Polynesia to the Minister of Overseas France.: 99 

In 2015, French MP Philippe Folliot set foot on Clipperton becoming the first elected official from France to do so. Folliot noted that visiting Clipperton was something he had wanted to do since he was nine years old. Following the visit, Folliot reported to the National Assembly on the pressing need to reaffirm French sovereignty over the atoll and its surrounding maritime claims. He also proposed establishing an international scientific research station on Clipperton and administrative reforms surrounding the oversight of the atoll.

In 2022, France passed legislation officially referring to the island as "La Passion–Clipperton".

History

Sketch of "l'Isle de la Passion" (Clipperton) from La Princesse's ship's diary (1711).

Discovery and early claims

There are several claims to the first discovery of the island. The earliest recorded possible sighting is 24 January 1521 when Portuguese-born Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan discovered an island he named San Pablo after turning westward away from the American mainland during his circumnavigation of the globe. On 15 November 1528, Spaniard Álvaro de Saavedra Cerón discovered an island he called Isla Médanos in the region while on an expedition commissioned by his cousin, the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés, to find a route to the Philippines.

Although both San Pablo and Isla Médanos are considered to be possible sightings of Clipperton, the island was first charted by French merchant Michel Dubocage, commanding La Découverte, who arrived at the island on Good Friday, 3 April 1711; he was joined the following day by fellow ship captain Martin de Chassiron and La Princesse. The island was given the name Île de la Passion ('Passion Island') as the date of rediscovery fell within Passiontide. They drew up the first map of the island and claimed it for France.

In August 1825, American sea captain Benjamin Morrell made the first recorded landing on Clipperton, exploring the island and making a detailed report of its vegetation.

The common name for the island comes from John Clipperton, an English pirate and privateer who fought the Spanish during the early 18th century, and who is said to have passed by the island. Some sources claim that he used it as a base for his raids on shipping.

19th century

Mexican claim 1821–1858

After its declaration of independence in 1821, Mexico took possession of the lands that had once belonged to Spain. As Spanish records noted the existence of the island as early as 1528, the territory was incorporated into Mexico. The Mexican constitution of 1917 explicitly includes the island, using the Spanish name La Pasión, as Mexican territory. This would be amended on January 18, 1934, after the sovereignty dispute over the island was settled in favor of France.

1895 $1 stamp of Clipperton Island, issued by W. Frese & Co. as an agent of the Oceanic Phosphate Company. The local post stamps were used for mail travelling between Clipperton and San Francisco. El territorio nacional comprende el de las partes integrantes de la Federación y además el de las islas adyacentes en ambos mares. Comprende, asimismo, la isla de Guadalupe, las de Revillagigedo y la de la Pasión, situadas en el océano Pacífico. The national territory includes that of the integral parts of the Federation and also that of the adjacent islands in both seas. It also includes the island of Guadalupe, Revillagigedo and La Pasión, located in the Pacific Ocean.

— Mexican Constitution of 1917

French claim (1858)

On 17 November 1858, Emperor Napoleon III annexed Clipperton as part of the French protectorate of Tahiti. Ship-of-the-line Lieutenant Victor Le Coat de Kervéguen published a notice of this annexation in Hawaiian newspapers to further cement France's claim to the island.

Guano mining claims (1892–1905)

In 1892, a claim on the island was filed with the U.S. State Department under the U.S. Guano Islands Act by Frederick W. Permien of San Francisco on behalf of the Stonington Phosphate Company. In 1893, Permien transferred those rights to a new company, the Oceanic Phosphate Company. In response to the application, the State Department rejected the claim, noting France's prior claim on the island and that the claim was not bonded as was required by law. Additionally during this time there were concerns in Mexico that the British or Americans would lay claim to the island.

Despite the lack of U.S. approval of its claim, the Oceanic Phosphate Company began mining guano on the island in 1895. Although the company had plans for as many as 200 workers on the island, at its peak only 25 men were stationed there. The company shipped its guano to Honolulu and San Francisco where it sold for between US$10 and US$20 per ton. In 1897, the Oceanic Phosphate Company began negotiations with the British Pacific Islands Company to transfer its interest in Clipperton; this drew the attention of both French and Mexican officials.

On 24 November 1897, French naval authorities arrived on the Duguay Trouin and found three Americans working on the island. The French ordered the American flag to be lowered. At that time, U.S. authorities assured the French that they did not intend to assert American sovereignty over the island. A few weeks later, on 13 December 1897, Mexico sent the gunboat La Demócrata and a group of marines to assert its claim on the island, evicting the Americans, raising the Mexican flag, and drawing a protest from France. From 1898 to 1905, the Pacific Islands Company worked the Clipperton guano deposits under a concession agreement with Mexico. In 1898, Mexico made a US$1.5 million claim against the Oceanic Phosphate Company for the guano shipped from the island from 1895 to 1897.

20th century

Mexican colonization (1905–1917)

In 1905, the Mexican government renegotiated its agreement with the British Pacific Islands Company, establishing a military garrison on the island a year later and erecting a lighthouse under the orders of Mexican President Porfirio Díaz. Captain Ramón Arnaud was appointed governor of Clipperton. At first he was reluctant to accept the post, believing it amounted to exile from Mexico, but he relented after being told that Díaz had personally chosen him to protect Mexico's interests in the international conflict with France. It was also noted that because Arnaud spoke English, French, and Spanish, he would be well equipped to help protect Mexico's sovereignty over the territory. He arrived on Clipperton as governor later that year.

By 1914 around 100 men, women, and children lived on the island, resupplied every two months by a ship from Acapulco. With the escalation of fighting in the Mexican Revolution, regular resupply visits ceased, and the inhabitants were left to their own devices. On 28 February 1914, the schooner Nokomis wrecked on Clipperton; with a still seaworthy lifeboat, four members of the crew volunteered to row to Acapulco for help. The USS Cleveland arrived months later to rescue the crew. While there, the captain offered to transport the survivors of the colony back to Acapulco; Arnaud refused as he believed a supply ship would soon arrive.

Mexican survivors from Clipperton Island, 1917

By 1917, all but one of the male inhabitants had died. Many had perished from scurvy, while others, including Arnaud, died during an attempt to sail after a passing ship to fetch help. Lighthouse keeper Victoriano Álvarez was the last man on the island, together with 15 women and children. Álvarez proclaimed himself 'king', and began a campaign of rape and murder, before being killed by Tirza Rendón, who was his favourite victim. Almost immediately after Álvarez's death, four women and seven children, the last survivors, were picked up by the U.S. Navy gunship Yorktown on 18 July 1917.

Final arbitration of ownership (1931)

Throughout Mexico's occupation of Clipperton, France insisted on its ownership of the island, and lengthy diplomatic correspondence between the two countries led to a treaty on 2 March 1909, agreeing to seek binding international arbitration by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, with each nation promising to abide by his determination. In 1931, Victor Emmanuel III issued his arbitral decision in the Clipperton Island Case, declaring Clipperton a French possession. Mexican President Pascual Ortiz Rubio, in response to public opinion that considered the Italian king biased towards France, consulted international experts on the validity of the decision, but ultimately Mexico accepted Victor Emmanuel's findings. France formally took possession of Clipperton on January 26, 1935.

U.S. presidential visit

President Franklin D. Roosevelt made a stop over at Clipperton in July 1938 aboard the USS Houston as part of a fishing expedition to the Galápagos Islands and other points along the Central and South American coasts. At the island, Roosevelt and his party spent time fishing for sharks, and afterwards Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt of the Smithsonian Institution went ashore with some crew to gather scientific samples and make observations of the island.

Roosevelt had previously tried to visit Clipperton in July 1934 after transiting through the Panama Canal en route to Hawaii on the Houston; he had heard the area was good for fishing, but heavy seas prevented them from lowering a boat when they reached the island. On 19 July 1934, soon after the stop at Clipperton, the rigid airship USS Macon rendezvoused with the Houston, and one of the Macon's Curtiss F9C biplanes delivered mail to the president.

American occupation (1944–1945)

The Government of the United States is aware of the extent to which the French Government is desirous to cooperate, in all domains, to the success of the Allied Armies, in Europe as well as in the Pacific. It will understand, however, its concern that French sovereignty be not disregarded in any part of the empire.

Georges Bidault, : 789 

The U.S. Navy weather station on the northern side of Clipperton. View is from the top of a radio tower, looking northwest.

In April 1944, the USS Atlanta took observations of Clipperton while en route to Hawaii. After an overflight of the island by planes from the USS Detroit and USS Nevada to ensure Clipperton was uninhabited, the USS Argus departed San Francisco on 4 December 1944 with aerological specialists and personnel and was followed several days later by USS LST-563 with provisions, heavy equipment, and equipment for construction of a U.S. Navy weather station on the island. The sailors at the weather station were armed in case of a possible Japanese attack in the region. Landing on the island proved challenging. LST-563 grounded on the reef and the salvage ship USS Seize was brought in to help refloat the ship but it too was grounded. Finally, in January 1945, the USS Viking and USS Tenino were able to free the Seize and to offload equipment from LST-563 before it was abandoned.

Once the weather station was completed and sailors garrisoned on the island, the U.S. government informed the British, French, and Mexican governments of the station and its purpose. Every day at 9 a.m., the 24 sailors stationed at the Clipperton weather station sent up weather balloons to gather information. Later, Clipperton was considered for an airfield to shift traffic between North America and Australia far from the front lines of Pacific Theater.

In April 1943, during a meeting between presidents Roosevelt of the U.S. and Avila Camacho of Mexico, the topic of Mexican ownership of Clipperton was raised. The American government seemed interested in Clipperton being handed over to Mexico due to the importance the island might play in both commercial and military air travel, as well as its proximity to the Panama Canal.

Although these talks were informal, the U.S. backed away from any Mexican claim on Clipperton as Mexico had previously accepted the 1931 arbitration decision. The U.S. government also felt it would be easier to obtain a military base on the island from France. However, after the French government was notified about the weather station, relations on this matter deteriorated rapidly with the French government sending a formal note of protest in defense of French sovereignty. In response, the U.S. extended an offer for the French military to operate the station or to have the Americans agree to leave the weather station under the same framework previously agreed to with other weather stations in France and North Africa. There were additional concern within the newly formed Provisional Government of the French Republic that notification of the installation was made to military and not civilian leadership.

Video of the crew of the USS Concord on Clipperton Island landing a Jeep and using a radio

French Foreign Minister Georges Bidault said of the incident: "This is very humiliating to us we are anxious to cooperate with you, but sometimes you do not make it easy". French Vice Admiral Raymond Fenard requested during a meeting with U.S. Admiral Lyal A. Davidson that civilians be given access to Clipperton and the surrounding waters, but the U.S. Navy denied the request because there was an active military installation on the island. Instead Davidson offered to transport a French officer to the installation and reassured the French government that the United States did not wish to claim sovereignty over the island. During these discussions between the admirals, French diplomats in Mexico attempted to hire the Mexican vessel Pez de Plata out of Acapulco to bring a military attaché to Clipperton under a cover story that they were going on a shark fishing trip. At the request of the Americans, the Mexican government refused to allow the Pez De Plata to leave port. French officials then attempted to leave in another smaller vessel and filed a false destination with the local port authorities but were also stopped by Mexican officials.

During this period, French officials in Mexico leaked information about their concerns, as well as about the arrival of seaplanes at Clipperton, to The New York Times and Newsweek; both stories were refused publishing clearance on national security grounds. In February 1945, the U.S. Navy transported French Officer Lieutenant Louis Jampierre to Clipperton out of San Diego where he visited the installation and that afternoon returned to the United States. As the war in the Pacific progressed, concerns about Japanese incursions into the Eastern Pacific were reduced and in September 1945 the U.S. Navy began removing from Clipperton. During the evacuation, munitions were destroyed, but significant matériel was left on the island. By 21 October 1945, the last U.S. Navy staff at the weather station left Clipperton.

Post-World War II developments

Since the island was abandoned by American forces at the end of World War II, the island has been visited by sports fishermen, French naval patrols, and Mexican tuna and shark fishermen. There have been infrequent scientific and amateur radio expeditions and, in 1978, Jacques-Yves Cousteau visited with a team of divers and a survivor from the 1917 evacuation to film a television special called Clipperton: The Island that Time Forgot.

The island was visited by ornithologist Ken Stager of the Los Angeles County Museum in 1958. Appalled at the depredations visited by feral pigs upon the island's brown booby and masked booby colonies (reduced to 500 and 150 birds, respectively), Stager procured a shotgun and killed all 58 pigs. By 2003, the booby colonies had grown to 25,000 brown boobies and 112,000 masked boobies, making Clipperton home to the world's second-largest brown booby colony, and its largest masked booby colony. In 1994, Stager's story inspired Bernie Tershy and Don Croll, both professors at the University of California, Santa Cruz Long Marine Lab, to found the non-profit Island Conservation, which works to prevent extinctions through the removal of invasive species from islands.

When the independence of Algeria in 1962 threatened French nuclear testing sites in North Africa, the French Ministry of Defence considered Clipperton as a possible replacement site. This was eventually ruled out due to the island's hostile climate and remote location, but the island was used to house a small scientific mission to collect data on nuclear fallout from other nuclear tests. From 1966 to 1969, the French military sent a series of missions, called "Bougainville," to the island. The Bougainville missions unloaded some 25 tons of equipment, including sanitary facilities, traditional Polynesian dwellings, drinking water treatment tanks, and generators. The missions sought to surveil the island and its surrounding waters, observe weather conditions, and evaluate potential rehabilitation of the World War II era airstrip. By 1978, the structures built during the Bougainville missions had become quite derelict. The French explored reopening the lagoon and developing a harbour for trade and tourism during the 1970s, but this too was abandoned. An automatic weather installation was completed on 7 April 1980, with data collected by the station transmitted via satellite to Brittany.

In 1981, the Académie des sciences d'outre-mer recommended the island have its own economic infrastructure, with an airstrip and a fishing port in the lagoon. This would mean opening the lagoon to the ocean by creating a passage in the atoll rim. To oversee this, the French government reassigned Clipperton from the High Commissioner for French Polynesia to the direct authority of the French government, classifying the island as an overseas state private property administered by France's Overseas Minister. In 1986, the Company for the Study, Development and Exploitation of Clipperton Island (French acronym, SEDEIC) and French officials began outlining a plan for the development of Clipperton as a fishing port, but due to economic constraints, the distance from markets, and the small size of the atoll, nothing beyond preliminary studies was undertaken and plans for the development were abandoned. In the mid-1980s, the French government began efforts to enlist citizens of French Polynesia to settle on Clipperton; these plans were ultimately abandoned as well.

In November 1994, the French Space Agency requested the help of NASA to track the first stage breakup of the newly designed Ariane 5 rocket. After spending a month on Clipperton setting up and calibrating radar equipment to monitor Ariane flight V88, the mission ended in disappointment when the rocket disintegrated 37 seconds after launch due to a software bug.

Despite Mexico accepting the 1931 arbitration decision that Clipperton was French territory, the right of Mexican fishing vessels to work Clipperton's territorial waters have remained a point of contention. A 2007 treaty, reaffirmed in 2017, grants Mexican access to Clipperton's fisheries so long as authorization is sought from the French government, conservation measures are followed, and catches are reported; however, the lack of regular monitoring of the fisheries by France makes verifying compliance difficult.

Castaways

In May 1893, Charles Jensen and "Brick" Thurman of the Oceanic Phosphate Company were left on the island by the company's ship Compeer with 90 days worth of supplies in order to prevent other attempts to claim the island and its guano. Before sailing for Clipperton, Jensen wrote a letter to the Secretary of the Coast Seamen's Union, Andrew Furuseth, instructing him that if the Oceanic Phosphate Company had not sent a vessel to Clipperton six weeks after the return of the Compeer to make it known that they had been stranded there. The Oceanic Phosphate Company denied it had left the men without adequate supplies and contracted the schooner Viking to retrieve them in late August. The Viking rescued the men, who had used seabirds' eggs to supplement their supplies, and returned them to San Francisco on 31 October.

In May 1897, the British cargo vessel Kinkora wrecked on Clipperton; the crew was able to salvage food and water from the ship, allowing them to survive on the island in relative comfort. During the crew's time on the island, a passing vessel offered to take the men to the mainland for $1,500, which the crew refused. Instead eight of the men loaded up a lifeboat and rowed to Acapulco for help. After the first mate of the Kinkora, Mr. McMarty, arrived in Acapulco, HMS Comus set sail from British Columbia to rescue the sailors.

In 1947, five American fishermen from San Pedro, California, were rescued from Clipperton after surviving on the island for six weeks.

In early 1962, the island provided a home to nine crewmen of the sunken tuna clipper MV Monarch, stranded for 23 days from 6 February to 1 March. They reported that the lagoon water was drinkable, although they preferred to drink water from the coconuts they found. Unable to use any of the dilapidated buildings, they constructed a crude shelter from cement bags and tin salvaged from Quonset huts built by the American military 20 years earlier. Wood from the huts was used for firewood, and fish caught off the fringing reef combined with potatoes and onions they had saved from their sinking vessel augmented the island's meager supply of coconuts. The crewmen reported they tried eating bird's eggs, but found them to be rancid, and they decided after trying to cook a 'little black bird' that it did not have enough meat to make the effort worthwhile. Pigs had been eradicated, but the crewmen reported seeing their skeletons around the atoll. The crewmen were eventually discovered by another fishing boat, and rescued by the U.S. Navy destroyer USS Robison.

Amateur radio DX-peditions

Clipperton has long been an attractive destination for amateur radio groups due to its remoteness, permit requirements, history, and interesting environment. While some radio operation has been part of other visits to the island, major DX-peditions have included FO0XB (1978), FO0XX (1985), FO0CI (1992), FO0AAA (2000), TX5C (2008) and TX5S (2024).

In March 2014, the Cordell Expedition, organised and led by Robert Schmieder, combined a radio DX-pedition using callsign TX5K with environmental and scientific investigations. The team of 24 radio operators made more than 114,000 contacts, breaking the previous record of 75,000. The activity included extensive operation in the 6-meter band, including Earth–Moon–Earth communication (EME) or 'moonbounce' contacts. A notable accomplishment was the use of DXA, a real-time satellite-based online graphic radio log web page, allowing anyone with a browser to see the radio activity. Scientific work conducted during the expedition included the first collection and identification of foraminifera and extensive aerial imaging of the island using kite-borne cameras. The team included two scientists from the University of Tahiti and a French TV documentary crew from Thalassa.

In April 2015, Alain Duchauchoy, F6BFH, operated from Clipperton using callsign TX5P as part of the Passion 2015 scientific expedition to Clipperton Island. Duchauchoy also researched Mexican use of the island during the early 1900s as part of the expedition.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The island is assigned a French postal code, but there is no post office on the island.

References

  1. ^ Findlay, A. G.; Maury, M. F. (1853). "Oceanic Currents, and Their Connection with the Proposed Central-America Canals". Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. 23: 217–242. doi:10.2307/1797966. JSTOR 1797966. Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  2. ^ Jost, Christian H. (2003). "Clipperton – Île de la Passion: une aire française du Pacifique à protéger" . In Lebigre, Jean-Michel; Decoudras, Pierre-Marie (eds.). Les aires protégées insulaires et littorales tropicales . Îles et Archipels Nº32 (in French). Bordeaux: CRET. p. 244. ISBN 2-905081-45-7. OCLC 492187765.
  3. ^ Décret n° 2017-292 du 6 mars 2017 relatif au temps légal français (Décret 2017-292) (in French). 6 March 2017. p. 2. Archived from the original on 8 March 2023. Retrieved 6 April 2023.
  4. ^ Jullien, Pierre (17 April 2020). "Clipperton : une " passion " américano-franco-mexicaine" . Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 31 July 2022. Retrieved 31 July 2022.
  5. ^ Glynn, P. W.; Veron, J. E. N.; Wellington, G. M. (June 1996). "Clipperton Atoll (eastern Pacific): oceanography, geomorphology, reef-building coral ecology and biogeography". Coral Reefs. 15 (2): 71–99. Bibcode:1996CorRe..15...71G. doi:10.1007/BF01771897. ISSN 0722-4028. S2CID 33353663. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 3 April 2023.
  6. ^ a b c Morrell, Benjamin (1841), A Narrative of Four Voyages to the South Sea, North and South, Pacific Ocean, Chinese Sea, Ethiopic and Southern Atlantic Ocean, Indian and Antarctic Ocean from the Years 1822 to 1831, New York, New York: Harper & Brothers, p. 219, archived from the original on 1 April 2023, retrieved 1 April 2023
  7. ^ Hinz, Earl R.; Howard, Jim (2006). Landfalls of Paradise: Cruising Guide to the Pacific Islands. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824845186. Archived from the original on 4 April 2023. Retrieved 4 February 2022 – via Google Books. French Polynesia operates as a CEPT country under French authority, but still requires local permission and a local call sign (as do the other French colonies in Oceania: Clipperton, New Caledonia, and Wallis and Futuna.
  8. ^ Todd, Ian (1974). Island Realm: A Pacific Panorama. Angus & Robertson. p. 190. ISBN 9780207127618. Archived from the original on 4 April 2023. Retrieved 2 February 2022 – via Google Books. On the other side of Oceania, about 1,800 miles (2,897 km) west of the Panama Canal, is another French possession, Clipperton Island.
  9. ^ Ineich, Ivan; Zug, George (1991). "Nomenclatural status of Emoia cyanura (Lacertilia, Scincidae) populations in the Central Pacific". Copeia. 1991 (4). American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists: 1132–1136. doi:10.2307/1446114. JSTOR 1446114. Archived from the original on 15 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022. Its distribution encompasses much of Oceania from the Hawaiian archipelago, Clipperton Island, and Easter Island westward through Polynesia and Melanesia
  10. ^ Fisher, Denise (16 March 2022). "L'Indo-Pacifique et la souveraineté de la France en Océanie". Outre-Terre. 6061 (1): 467–503. doi:10.3917/oute2.060.0468. S2CID 247540315. Archived from the original on 29 July 2022. Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  11. ^ Bempéchat, Paul-André (2017). Jean Cras, Polymath of Music and Letters. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781351561754. Archived from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 18 February 2022 – via Google Books. In India, French settlements included Pondicherry, Karikal, Yanaon, Mahé and Chandernagore; and in Oceania, Clipperton, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Vanuatu (shared with the British Empire)
  12. ^ Terry, James P. (1988). Climate and Environmental Change in the Pacific. The University of Michigan. p. 5. ISBN 9789820103580. Archived from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 11 March 2022 – via Google Books. The British added the Ellice, Pitcairn and portions of the Phoenix Islands; the Australians consolidated their claims to Papua; and the French consolidated their claims to Clipperton islands; Easter and adjacent islands were claimed by Chile, Cocos Island was claimed by Costa Rica, and the Galapagos claimed by Ecuador. By 1900, there were virtually no remaining islands in Oceania unclaimed by foreign powers.
  13. ^ Flichy de la Neuville, Thomas; De Gentile, Eleonore (2022). "France in the Pacific. History of a Discreet Presence". Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik. 15: 69–82. doi:10.1007/s12399-022-00893-w. S2CID 248174340. Archived from the original on 30 July 2022. Retrieved 30 July 2022.
  14. ^ Fourriére, Manon; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián A.; Crane, Nicole (2014). "Fishes of Clipperton Atoll, Eastern Pacific: Checklist, Endemism, and Analysis of Completeness of the Inventory". Pacific Science. 68 (3): 375–395. doi:10.2984/68.3.7. ISSN 0030-8870. S2CID 56166137. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 13 June 2023.
  15. ^ Romero-Torres, Mauricio; Treml, Eric A.; Acosta, Alberto; Paz-García, David A. (19 June 2018). "The Eastern Tropical Pacific coral population connectivity and the role of the Eastern Pacific Barrier". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 9354. Bibcode:2018NatSR...8.9354R. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-27644-2. PMC 6008413. PMID 29921956.
  16. ^ Robertson, D. R.; Allen, G. R. (1 June 1996). "Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll". Coral Reefs. 15 (2): 121–131. Bibcode:1996CorRe..15..121R. doi:10.1007/BF01771902. S2CID 41906452.
  17. ^ Klitgord, Kim D.; Mammerickx, Jacqueline (10 August 1982). "Northern East Pacific Rise: Magnetic anomaly and bathymetric framework". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 87 (B8): 6725–6750. Bibcode:1982JGR....87.6725K. doi:10.1029/JB087iB08p06725.
  18. ^ Henry W. Menard (2) (1956). "Archipelagic Aprons". AAPG Bulletin. 40. doi:10.1306/5CEAE56B-16BB-11D7-8645000102C1865D. ISSN 0149-1423. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2023.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  19. ^ Menard, H. W.; Fisher, Robert L. (1958). "Clipperton Fracture Zone in the Northeastern Equatorial Pacific". The Journal of Geology. 66 (3): 240. Bibcode:1958JG.....66..239M. doi:10.1086/626502. JSTOR 30080925. S2CID 129268203.
  20. ^ a b c Sacotte, Jean-Charles (1 March 1978). "Dx pedition on Clipperton". 1978 Dxpedition to Clipperton Atoll. Translated by Jeanne, Sylvie. Clipperton DX Club. Archived from the original on 29 December 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  21. ^ Jost, Xenia; Jost, Christian H.; Meyer, Jean-Yves (6 June 2019). "Flora and Vegetation of Clipperton (La Passion) Atoll, North-Eastern Pacific Ocean: Three Centuries of Changes and Recent Plant Dynamics". Atoll Research Bulletin (623): 1–31. doi:10.5479/si.0077-5630.623. ISSN 0077-5630. S2CID 197962758. Archived from the original on 10 December 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  22. ^ "Clipperton Island pictures and history". QSL.net. 2000 DXpedition to Clipperton Island. Archived from the original on 13 April 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  23. ^ Pogoreutz, Claudia; Clua, Eric E. G.; Tortolero-Langarica, J. J. Adolfo (2022). "High live coral cover and incidence of a pink-spotted coral phenotype on remote reefs off Clipperton Island, Tropical Eastern Pacific". Marine Biology. 169 (9): 115. Bibcode:2022MarBi.169..115P. doi:10.1007/s00227-022-04101-3. ISSN 0025-3162. S2CID 257057229. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  24. ^ a b c d "Eastern Pacific Ocean, southeast of Mexico". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  25. ^ a b Tchekémian, Anthony (2022). "Clipperton, seul territoire français dans l'océan Pacifique nord-oriental: quels enjeux environnementaux et géopolitiques?" . Études caribiéennes (in French). 51. Retrieved 22 December 2023.
  26. ^ a b Wheeler, Quentin (11 August 2012). "New to nature No 80: Callyspongia roosevelti". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  27. ^ Limbaugh, Conrad (1 May 1959). August – September 1958. Field Report. IGY Clipperton Island Expedition (Report). Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  28. ^ Goldberg, Walter M.; Rankey, Eugene C. (14 July 2023), A Global Atlas of Atolls, Boca Raton: CRC Press, doi:10.1201/9781003287339-1, ISBN 978-1-003-28733-9, retrieved 23 December 2023
  29. ^ "War Diary of USS Pontotoc (AVS-7)". catalog.archives.gov. World War II War Diaries, Other Operational Records and Histories, between ca. January 1, 1942–ca. June 1, 1946. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 1 June 1945. p. 1. Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  30. ^ Rose, Neil. "Voices of WWII: Neil Rose". Friends of the National WWII Memorial (Interview). Washington, DC. Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  31. ^ a b Fluckey, Owen (3 July 2012). "An Interview with Owen E. Fluckey". National Museum of the Pacific War (Interview). Interviewed by Richard Misenhimer. Argos, Indiana. p. 16. Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  32. ^ a b c Sachet, Marie-Hélène (1962a). "Geography and land ecology of Clipperton Island". Atoll Research Bulletin. 86: 1–115. doi:10.5479/si.00775630.86.1. ISSN 0077-5630. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  33. ^ Eckert, Scott A.; Stewart, Brent S. (2001), Tricas, Timothy C.; Gruber, Samuel H. (eds.), "Telemetry and satellite tracking of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Sea of Cortez, Mexico, and the north Pacific Ocean", The behavior and sensory biology of elasmobranch fishes: an anthology in memory of Donald Richard Nelson, Developments in environmental biology of fishes, vol. 20, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 299–308, doi:10.1007/978-94-017-3245-1_17, ISBN 978-90-481-5655-9, archived from the original on 7 July 2023, retrieved 29 May 2023
  34. ^ Maul, George A.; Hansen, Donald V.; Bravo, Nicolas J. (21 March 2013), Woodworth, P.L.; Pugh, D.T.; DeRonde, J.G.; Warrick, R.G. (eds.), "A Note on Sea Level Variability at Clipperton Island from Geosat and In-Situ Observations", Geophysical Monograph Series, Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union, pp. 145–154, doi:10.1029/gm069p0145, ISBN 978-1-118-66652-4, archived from the original on 7 July 2023, retrieved 29 May 2023
  35. ^ Temmen, John; Montenegro, Alvaro; Juras, Sreya; Field, Julie S.; DeGrand, Jim (2022). "Floating the sweet potato to Polynesia: Considering the feasibility of oceanic drift for the prehistoric introduction of the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) to Pacific Islands". Quaternary Science Reviews. 295: 107709. Bibcode:2022QSRv..29507709T. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2022.107709. S2CID 252548506. Archived from the original on 30 May 2023. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  36. ^ Lebigre, Jean-Michel; Decoudras, Pierre-Marie (2 March 2004). Les aires protégées insulaires et littorales tropicales actes du colloque (in French). Bordeaux: Centre de recherches sur les espaces tropicaux de l'Université Michel de Montaigney. ISBN 2-905081-45-7. OCLC 492187765.
  37. ^ a b c Jost, Christian (2014). "Bienvenue sur l'île de La Passion ... Clipperton!" (in French). Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  38. ^ Milbrand, Lance. "Lance Milbrand: Special Projects". Milbrand Cinema. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  39. ^ Étienne, Jean-Louis (2005). "Expédition Clipperton". JeanLouisEtienne.com (in French). Jean-Louis Étienne. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2005.
  40. ^ de la Ronciere, Bertrand (2008). Les Oceans Français en 36 Interviews (in French). Editions l'Harmattan. ISBN 978-2-296-21555-9. OCLC 1373650260.
  41. ^ Nelson, Dan; Sachs, Julian (2 April 2008). "Clipperton Atoll Expedition – 2008". Faculty.Washington.edu. School of Oceanography, University of Washington. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  42. ^ Belcher, Edward. "Letter from Capt. E. Belcher (Oahu) to F. Beaufort" (10 June 1839) . Records of the Hydrographic Department of Great Britain relating to surveys in the Pacific and Indian Oceans (as filmed by the AJCP), 1779–1946, Box: Letters of Capt. E. Belcher, File: Surveyors' Letters, ID: 1064184619. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia: National Library of Australia.
  43. ^ Jost (2003).
  44. ^ Shor, Elizabeth Noble (1978). Scripps Institution of Oceanography: Probing the Oceans, 1936 to 1976. San Diego, California: Tofua Press. ISBN 0-914488-17-1. OCLC 4145154. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  45. ^ Maragos, James E.; Williams, Gareth J. (2011), "Pacific Coral Reefs: An Introduction", in Hopley, David (ed.), Encyclopedia of Modern Coral Reefs, Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 753–776, doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2639-2_122, ISBN 978-90-481-2638-5, retrieved 1 April 2023
  46. ^ Snodgrass, R. E. & Heller, E. (30 September 1902). "The birds of Clipperton and Cocos Islands". Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galápagos expedition 1898–1899. IV: 501–520. Archived from the original on 30 May 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2023.
  47. ^ Jost et al. (2016), pp. 12, 18.
  48. ^ Charpy, Loïc; Rodier, M.; Sarazin, G. (2010), Ceccaldi, Hubert-Jean; Dekeyser, Ivan; Girault, Mathias; Stora, Georges (eds.), "Clipperton, a Meromictic Lagoon", Global Change: Mankind-Marine Environment Interactions, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 351–356, doi:10.1007/978-90-481-8630-3_62, ISBN 978-90-481-8629-7, archived from the original on 10 April 2023, retrieved 31 March 2023
  49. ^ a b Charpy, L.; Rodier, M.; Couté, A.; Perrette-Gallet, C.; Bley-Loëz, C. (2010). "Clipperton, a possible future for atoll lagoons". Coral Reefs. 29 (3): 771–783. Bibcode:2010CorRe..29..771C. doi:10.1007/s00338-010-0627-0. ISSN 0722-4028. S2CID 44581800. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  50. ^ a b c d e Galand, Pierre E.; Bourrain, Muriel; De Maistre, Emmanuel; Catala, Philippe; Desdevises, Yves; Elifantz, Hila; Kirchman, David L.; Lebaron, Philippe (2012). "Phylogenetic and functional diversity of Bacteria and Archaea in a unique stratified lagoon, the Clipperton atoll (N Pacific)". FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 79 (1): 203–217. Bibcode:2012FEMME..79..203G. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01209.x. PMID 22029483. S2CID 954409.
  51. ^ NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (2017), VIIRS-SNPP Level 2 Ocean Color Data Version R2018.0, NASA Ocean Biology DAAC, doi:10.5067/npp/viirs/l2/oc/2018, archived from the original on 17 October 2022, retrieved 3 April 2023
  52. ^ a b Fluckey (2012), p. 17.
  53. ^ Fluckey, Owen (21 August 2004). "Interview with Owen Fluckey". National Museum of the Pacific War (Interview). Interviewed by Misenhimer, Richard; Van Meter, Peg. Fredericksburg, Texas. p. 4. Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  54. ^ Carricart-Ganivet, Juan P.; Reyes-Bonilla, Hector (1999). "New and Previous Records of Scleractinian Corals from Clipperton Atoll, Eastern Pacific". Pacific Science. 53 (4): 370–375. hdl:10125/710. ISSN 0030-8870. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  55. ^ Fergusson, G. J.; Libby, W. F. (1962). "UCLA Radiocarbon Dates I". Radiocarbon. 4: 109–114. Bibcode:1962Radcb...4..109F. doi:10.1017/S0033822200036572. ISSN 0033-8222. S2CID 251136625.
  56. ^ Couté, Alain; Perrette, Catherine; Chomérat, Nicolas (1 February 2012). "Three Dinophyceae from Clipperton Island lagoon (eastern Pacific Ocean), including a description of Peridiniopsis cristata var. tubulifera var. nov". Botanica Marina. 55 (1): 59–71. doi:10.1515/bot-2011-121. ISSN 1437-4323. S2CID 84994803. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  57. ^ Goode, Michael. "1992 Clipperton Island expedition". QSL.net. 2000 DXpedition to Clipperton Island. Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  58. ^ Milbrand, Lance (29 August 2003). "Clipperton Journal: The daily record of life on a Pacific atoll". News.NationalGeographic.com. National Geographic News. Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  59. ^ a b c Atoll Research Bulletin (PDF) (Report). Vol. 94. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. 15 December 1962. pp. 8–10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  60. ^ Mitchell, Beverly Marecheau (director), Arnaldo-Guizar, Chico (director), Ling, Lisa (host), Milbrand, Lance (reporter) (2004). National Geographic Ultimate Explorer: Island Castaway (Television production). Washington, D.C.: National Geographic. Retrieved 14 April 2023 – via Alexander Street.
  61. ^ a b Tchékémian, Anthony (2021). Clipperton, les restes de La Passion : regards sur le seul atoll corallien français dans l'océan Pacifique nord-oriental (in French). Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe: Presses universitaires des Antilles. ISBN 979-10-95177-18-0. OCLC 1289359277.
  62. ^ Action News at 12:30 PM (Television news production). ABC News (WPVI). 25 November 2015. Event occurs at 20:00. Retrieved 15 April 2023.
  63. ^ Irwin, Rossman P.; Davis, Robert E. (1 August 1999). "The relationship between the Southern Oscillation Index and tropical cyclone tracks in the eastern North Pacific". Geophysical Research Letters. 26 (15): 2251–2254. Bibcode:1999GeoRL..26.2251I. doi:10.1029/1999GL900533. S2CID 140602960.
  64. ^ Deangelis, Richard (1972). "Stalking the Wild Hurricane". Weatherwise. 25 (4): 156–161. Bibcode:1972Weawi..25d.156D. doi:10.1080/00431672.1972.9931595. ISSN 0043-1672. Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  65. ^ Wu, Henry C.; Moreau, Mélanie; Linsley, Braddock K.; Schrag, Daniel P.; Corrège, Thierry (2014). "Investigation of sea surface temperature changes from replicated coral Sr/Ca variations in the eastern equatorial Pacific (Clipperton Atoll) since 1874". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 412: 208–222. Bibcode:2014PPP...412..208W. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.07.039. Archived from the original on 28 October 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  66. ^ Linsley, Braddock K.; Ren, Lei; Dunbar, Robert B.; Howe, Stephen S. (2000). "El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and decadal-scale climate variability at 10°N in the eastern Pacific from 1893 to 1994: A coral-based reconstruction from Clipperton Atoll". Paleoceanography. 15 (3): 322–335. Bibcode:2000PalOc..15..322L. doi:10.1029/1999PA000428.
  67. ^ Linsley, B. K.; Messier, R. G.; Dunbar, R. B. (22 April 1999). "Assessing between-colony oxygen isotope variability in the coral Porites lobata at Clipperton Atoll". Coral Reefs. 18 (1): 13–27. doi:10.1007/s003380050148. ISSN 0722-4028. S2CID 32697159.
  68. ^ Snodgrass & Heller (1902).
  69. ^ Jost, Christian H.; Andréfouët, Serge (2006). "Long-term natural and human perturbations and current status of Clipperton Atoll, a remote island of the Eastern Pacific". Pacific Conservation Biology. 12 (3): 207–218. doi:10.1071/PC060207. ISSN 1038-2097.
  70. ^ Jost et al. (2016), p. 12.
  71. ^ Ineich, Ivan; Zug, George R. (13 December 1991). "Nomenclatural Status of Emoia cyanura (Lacertilia, Scincidae) Populations in the Central Pacific". Copeia. 1991 (4): 1132. doi:10.2307/1446114. JSTOR 1446114.
  72. ^ Zug, George R. (2013). Reptiles and Amphibians of the Pacific Islands: A Comprehensive Guide. University of California Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-520-95540-0 – via Google Books.
  73. ^ Davie, P. (2015). "Johngarthia planata (Stimpson, 1860)". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  74. ^ Perger, R. (2019). "Johngarthia oceanica (Perger, 2019)". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 1 June 2023.
  75. ^ Sanvicente-Añorve, Laura; Lemus-Santana, Elia; Solìs-Weiss, Vivianne (2016). "Body Growth Pattern of an Isolated Land Crab Species (Johngarthia planata) (Decapoda, Gercarcinidae) From the Eastern Tropical Pacific: an Ecological Approach". Crustaceana. 89 (13): 1525–1539. doi:10.1163/15685403-00003602. ISSN 0011-216X. JSTOR 44250144. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  76. ^ a b c d Pitman, Robert L.; Ballance, Lisa T.; Bost, Charly (2005). "Clipperton Island: Pigsty, Rat Hole, and Booby Prize" (PDF). Marine Ornithology. 33 (2): 193–194. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.600.7376. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2023.
  77. ^ Sachet, Marie-Hélène (7 March 1962b). "Flora and vegetation of Clipperton Island". Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. 4th. 31 (10). San Francisco, California: California Academy of Sciences: 249–307. Retrieved 12 January 2018 – via Internet Archive.
  78. ^ Lorvelec, Olivier; Pascal, Michel; Fretey, Jacques (2009). "Sea turtles on Clipperton Island (Eastern Tropical Pacific)". Marine Turtle Newsletter. 10 (13). Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  79. ^ Lorvelec, Pascal & Fretey (2009).
  80. ^ Jost, Christian H.; Friedlander, Alan; Ballesteros, Enric; Brown, Eric; Caselle, Jenn; Henning, Brad; Hoyos, Mauricio; Salinas de León, Pelayo; Rose, Paul; Thompson, Chris; Sala, Enric (2016). L'Atoll de Clipperton (Île de la Passion) : Biodiversité, Menaces, et Recommandations pour sa Conservation. Rapport au Gouvernement de la France. Août 2016 (PDF) (Report) (in French). Papetōʼai, Moʼorea, French Polynesia: CRIOBE. p. 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 July 2021. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
  81. ^ "Important Bird Areas factsheet: Clipperton". Datazone.BirdLife.org. BirdLife International. 2018. Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  82. ^ Bustamante, Paco; Le Verge, Thibault; Bost, Charles-André; Brault-Favrou, Maud; Le Corre, Matthieu; Weimerskirch, Henri; Cherel, Yves (24 October 2023). "Mercury contamination in the tropical seabird community from Clipperton Island, eastern Pacific Ocean". Ecotoxicology. 32 (8): 1050–1061. Bibcode:2023Ecotx..32.1050B. doi:10.1007/s10646-023-02691-2. ISSN 0963-9292. PMID 37615819. S2CID 261098767.
  83. ^ Stager, Kenneth E. (1964). "The Birds of Clipperton Island, Eastern Pacific". The Condor. 66 (5): 357–371. doi:10.2307/1365428. ISSN 1938-5129. JSTOR 1365428. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  84. ^ a b Ehrhardt, Jean P. (December 1971). "Census of the Birds of Clipperton Island, 1968". The Condor. 73 (4): 476–480. doi:10.2307/1366675. ISSN 1938-5129. JSTOR 1366675.
  85. ^ Rouan, Alice; Pousse, Melanie; Djerbi, Nadir; Porro, Barbara; Bourdin, Guillaume; Carradec, Quentin; Hume, Benjamin CC.; Poulain, Julie; Lê-Hoang, Julie; Armstrong, Eric; Agostini, Sylvain; Salazar, Guillem; Ruscheweyh, Hans-Joachim; Aury, Jean-Marc; Paz-García, David A. (1 June 2023). "Telomere DNA length regulation is influenced by seasonal temperature differences in short-lived but not in long-lived reef-building corals". Nature Communications. 14 (1): 3038. Bibcode:2023NatCo..14.3038R. doi:10.1038/s41467-023-38499-1. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 10235076. PMID 37263999.
  86. ^ Clua, Eric; Aurat, François; Bin, Nicolas; Bin, Sophie; Boissin, Emilie; Chavance, Yann; Cron, Daniel; Eleneau, Amanda; Hertau, Martin; Lancelot, Jonathan; Moro, Jean-Marc; Moulin, Clémentine; Pey, Alexis; Pogoreutz, Claudia; Pollina, Thibaut; Troublé, Romain; Planes, Serge (2018). Mission Tara Pacific sur l'atoll de Clipperton (île de La Passion – France) du 06 au 13 août 2018. Rapport de mission (Report) (in French). Tara Exhibitions Foundation. pp. 52–53. doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.20403.89127. CRIOBE USR3278. RA272.
  87. ^ Allen, Gerald R. (2008). "Conservation hotspots of biodiversity and endemism for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes". Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 18 (5): 541–556. Bibcode:2008ACMFE..18..541A. doi:10.1002/aqc.880. ISSN 1052-7613. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  88. ^ Crane, Nicole L.; Tariel, Juliette; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Robertson, D. Ross; Bernardi, Giacomo (27 June 2018). Patterson, Heather M. (ed.). "Clipperton Atoll as a model to study small marine populations: Endemism and the genomic consequences of small population size". PLOS ONE. 13 (6): e0198901. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1398901C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0198901. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 6021044. PMID 29949612.
  89. ^ Allen & Robertson (1997).
  90. ^ Béarez, Philippe; Séret, Bernard (2009). "Les poissons". In Charpy, Loïc (ed.). Clipperton: environnement et biodiversité d'un microcosme océanique . Patrimoines naturels (in French). Paris Marseille: Publications scientifiques du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle IRD éd. ISBN 978-2-85653-612-4.
  91. ^ Clua et al. (2018), pp. 54–57.
  92. ^ Allen, Gerald R.; Robertson, D. Ross (1997). "An annotated checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, tropical eastern Pacific" (PDF). Revista de Biología Tropical. 45 (2): 813–843. ISSN 2215-2075. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 April 2023. Retrieved 12 April 2023.
  93. ^ Clua et al. (2018), pp. 62–63.
  94. ^ Hutchinson, Melanie; Coffey, Daniel M.; Holland, Kim; Itano, David; Leroy, Bruno; Kohin, Suzanne; Vetter, Russell; Williams, Ashley J.; Wren, Johanna (2019). "Movements and habitat use of juvenile silky sharks in the Pacific Ocean inform conservation strategies". Fisheries Research. 210: 131–142. doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2018.10.016. S2CID 92285864. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  95. ^ De Laubenfels, Max Walker (1939). "Sponges collected on the presidential cruise of 1938" (PDF). Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 98 (15). Baltimore, Maryland. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  96. ^ Wheeler, Quentin (11 August 2012). "New to Nature no. 80: Callyspongia roosevelti". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 7 April 2023.
  97. ^ "Hayward Fish Dealer Facing Prison For Importing Rare Species". cbsnews.com. 22 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2 April 2023. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  98. ^ Kurhi, Eric (20 August 2011). Butler, David (ed.). "Fish wholesaler in hot water". Oakland Tribune. Vol. 137, no. 181. Oakland, California. p. 7. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023 – via Newspapers.com. There's a value that's created and that's for select customers who want something ugly but rare.
  99. ^ a b "United States v. Steven Robinson, No. 11-CR-00513 (N.D. Calif.)" (PDF). Environmental Crimes Section Monthly Bulletin. United States Department of Justice. 2012. p. 17. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  100. ^ Friedlander, Alan M.; Giddens, Jonatha; Ballesteros, Enric; Blum, Shmulik; Brown, Eric K.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Henning, Bradley; Jost, Christian; Salinas-de-León, Pelayo; Sala, Enric (16 July 2019). "Marine biodiversity from zero to a thousand meters at Clipperton Atoll (Île de La Passion), Tropical Eastern Pacific". PeerJ. 7: e7279. doi:10.7717/peerj.7279. ISSN 2167-8359. PMC 6640628. PMID 31341739.
  101. ^ "Hayward man sentenced for smuggling rare exotic fish". East Bay Times. 15 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2 April 2023. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  102. ^ "Costa Concordia (9320544)". LeonardoInfo. Registro Italiano Navale. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  103. ^ Report of safety investigation Stranding of the chemical tanker vessel Sichem Osprey on 10 February 2010 on Clipperton Island (PDF) (Report). Bureau d'enquêtes sur les événements de mer. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  104. ^ "Re: Probe into Sichem Osprey grounding". Diver.net. 1 March 2010. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  105. ^ "Xylene tanker runs aground on Clipperton Island". ReefTools.com. 22 February 2010. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  106. ^ "Eitzen tanker Sichem Osprey refloated". LloydsList.MaritimeIntelligence.Informa.com. Lloyds List. 8 March 2010. Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  107. ^ "Easterly Osprey: Vessel Information, Ex-Name History". MarineTraffic. 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 12 June 2023. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
  108. ^ "Plastic surveying and collection". ClippertonProject.com. The Clipperton Project. 12 March 2012. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  109. ^ "Mission PASSION 23 : Le Germinal pose le pied sur l'atoll de Clipperton" . Ministère des armées: Marine nationale: Actualités. 24 April 2023. Archived from the original on 29 April 2023. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  110. ^ Pauly, Daniel (2009). "The fisheries resources of the Clipperton Island EEZ (France)". In Zeller, Dirk; Harper, Sarah (eds.). Fisheries catch reconstructions: Islands, Part I (PDF). Fisheries Centre Research Reports. Vol. 17. Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia. pp. 35–37. ISSN 1198-6727. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
  111. ^ Friedlander, Alan M.; Giddens, Jonatha; Ballesteros, Enric; et al. (16 July 2019). "Marine Biodiversity from Zero to a Thousand Meters at Clipperton Atoll (Île de La Passion), Tropical Eastern Pacific". PeerJ. 7: e7279. doi:10.7717/peerj.7279. ISSN 2167-8359. PMC 6640628. PMID 31341739.
  112. ^ Article 9 — Loi n° 55-1052 du 6 août 1955 modifiée portant statut des Terres australes et antarctiques françaises et de l'île de Clipperton (Loi 55-1052) (in French). 6 August 1955. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  113. ^ Décret du 31 janvier 2008 relatif à l'administration de l'île de Clipperton (Décret) (in French). 31 January 2008. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  114. ^ Murray, Fiona (2012), "Article 227(4): European Member State Territories for Whose External Relations a Member State is Responsible", The European Union and Member State Territories: A New Legal Framework Under the EU Treaties, The Hague, Netherlands: T. M. C. Asser Press, pp. 37–40, doi:10.1007/978-90-6704-826-2_6, ISBN 978-90-6704-825-5, archived from the original on 10 April 2023, retrieved 1 April 2023
  115. ^ a b c Dickinson, Edwin D. (1933). "The Clipperton Island Case". American Journal of International Law. 27 (1): 130–133. doi:10.2307/2189797. ISSN 0002-9300. JSTOR 2189797. S2CID 147177707. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  116. ^ Smith, Mark A. (1977). "Sovereignty Over Unoccupied Territories—The Western Sahara Decision". Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law. 9 (1): 135–159. Archived from the original on 16 July 2022. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  117. ^ D. (October 1939). "Pacific Airways". Foreign Affairs. 18 (1): 62, 69. doi:10.2307/20028976. JSTOR 20028976.
  118. ^ Rimaboschi, Massimiliano (2006). L'unification du droit maritime: Contribution à la construction d'un ordre juridique maritime (in French). Presses universitaires d'Aix-Marseille. doi:10.4000/books.puam.934. ISBN 978-2-7314-0561-3. Archived from the original on 8 April 2023. Retrieved 6 April 2023.
  119. ^ Décret n° 96-774 du 30 août 1996 portant publication de la Convention des Nations unies sur le droit de la mer (ensemble neuf annexes), signée à Montego Bay le 10 décembre 1982, et de l'accord relatif à l'application de la partie XI de la Convention des Nations unies sur le droit de la mer du 10 décembre 1982, fait à New York le 28 juillet 1994 (Décret 96-774) (in French). 30 August 1996. Archived from the original on 12 April 2023. Retrieved 6 April 2023.
  120. ^ Law of the Sea (PDF) (Report). New York, New York, United States of America: United Nations, Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs. 2011. pp. 63–68. Bulletin No. 74. Retrieved 12 April 2023.
  121. ^ Law of the Sea (PDF) (Report). New York, New York, United States of America: United Nations, Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs. 2019. pp. 24–25. Bulletin No. 99. Retrieved 12 April 2023.
  122. ^ Décret n° 2018–23 du 16 janvier 2018 établissant les limites extérieures de la mer territoriale et de la zone économique exclusive au large de l'île de Clipperton (Décret 2018–23) (in French). 16 January 2018.
  123. ^ Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ), Belgium (2019), "Boundaries", Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase: Maritime Boundaries and Exclusive Economic Zones (200NM), Salvador Jesús Fernández Bejarano, Britt Lonneville, Paula Oset Garcia, Lennert Schepers, Lennert Tyberghein, Bart Vanhoorne, Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ), Belgium, VLIZ, doi:10.14284/386, archived from the original on 8 April 2023, retrieved 6 April 2023
  124. ^ Murray, Fiona (2012). The European Union and member state territories : a new legal framework under the EU treaties. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press. ISBN 978-90-6704-826-2. OCLC 772633376. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 12 April 2023.
  125. ^ a b c Forcari, Christophe. "Clipperton, un destin noir au milieu de nulle part" . Libération (in French). Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  126. ^ "Philippe Folliot, le sénateur des petits bouts de France". LEFIGARO (in French). 28 December 2021. Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  127. ^ "FOLLIOT Philippe". North Atlantic Treaty Organization Parliamentary Assembly. Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  128. ^ Folliot, Philippe (16 November 2016). Rapport No. 4219 (Report) (in French). Paris, France: Assemblée Nationale. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  129. ^ Relative à la différenciation, la décentralisation, la déconcentration et portant diverses mesures de simplification de l'action publique locale (1), Titre VIII : Dispositions relatives à l'Outre-Mer (Articles 239 à 268) (Loi 2022-217, Article 263) (in French). French Assemblée nationale and Sénat. 2 February 2022. Archived from the original on 4 November 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  130. ^ Nunn, George E. (1934). "Magellan's Route in the Pacific". Geographical Review. 24 (4): 615–633. Bibcode:1934GeoRv..24..615N. doi:10.2307/208851. JSTOR 208851. Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  131. ^ Glynn, Peter W. (2017), Glynn, Peter W.; Manzello, Derek P.; Enochs, Ian C. (eds.), "History of Eastern Pacific Coral Reef Research", Coral Reefs of the Eastern Tropical Pacific, Coral Reefs of the World, vol. 8, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 1–37, doi:10.1007/978-94-017-7499-4_1, ISBN 978-94-017-7498-7, retrieved 2 April 2023
  132. ^ Vargas, Jorge A. (2011). Mexico and the Law of the Sea: Contributions and Compromises. Publications on Ocean Development. Vol. 69. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 470. ISBN 9789004206205. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 7 September 2019 – via Google Books.
  133. ^ Wright, Ione Stuessy (1953). Voyages of Alvaro de Saavedra Cerón 1527–1529. Coral Gables, Florida: University of Miami Press.
  134. ^ "Map of Passion Island". Musée d'Archéologie National. Archived from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  135. ^ Sachet (1962b), p. 286.
  136. ^ Büch, Boudewijn (2003). Eilanden (in Dutch). Netherlands: Singel Pockets. ISBN 978-9-04-133086-4.
  137. ^ Vargas, Jorge A. (2011). Lowe, Vaughan; Churchill, Robin (eds.). Mexico and the Law of the Sea: Contributions and Compromises. Leiden, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 470. ISBN 978-90-04-20621-2. OCLC 754793865. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  138. ^ Kraska, James; Yang, Hee-Cheol, eds. (2023). Peaceful management of maritime disputes. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-003-37721-4. OCLC 1357019799. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  139. ^ a b Baldus, Wolfgang (October 2009). "The Stamps of Clipperton Island" (PDF). The Postal Gazette. Vol. IV, no. 5. p. 42. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  140. ^ "Mexican Constitution of 1917 Compared With Constitution of 1857". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 71 (1): 1–116. March 1917. doi:10.1177/0002716217071001S03. hdl:2027/hvd.32044058928805. ISSN 0002-7162. S2CID 152529340. Archived from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  141. ^ Jost, Christian (1 December 2005). "Bibliographie de l'île de Clipperton — Île de La Passion (1711–2005)". Journal de la société des océanistes (120–121): 181–197. doi:10.4000/jso.481. ISSN 0300-953X. Archived from the original on 2 December 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  142. ^ "Empire of France!". The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. Honolulu, Hawaii. 15 January 1859. Archived from the original on 27 June 2023. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  143. ^ Pardon, Daniel (15 May 2020). "1858 : Napoléon III déclenche la guerre des drapeaux à Clipperton" . Tahiti Infos (in French). Archived from the original on 1 June 2023. Retrieved 1 June 2023.
  144. ^ Armstrong, W. N., ed. (15 February 1898). "Cannot Claim Island: State Department Says Clipperton Island No Part of U.S." The Hawaiian Gazette. Vol. 33, no. 13. Honolulu, Hawaiʻi. p. 2. ISSN 2157-1392. LCCN sn83025121. OCLC 9249554. Archived from the original on 27 April 2023. Retrieved 23 April 2023 – via Library of Congress.
  145. ^ Wrighton, Scot (December 1983). The Pacific Guano Rush (MA). University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 4 April 2023.
  146. ^ Rogers, E.S. (9 January 1933). The Sovereignty of Guano Islands in the Pacific Ocean (Report). Washington, D.C.: Department of State, Office of the Legal Advisor. pp. 268–271. Archived from the original on 10 March 2023. Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  147. ^ Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores de México (1909). Isla de la Pasión llamada de Clipperton. Publicación oficial (in Mexican Spanish). Mexico City, Mexico: Imp. de A. García Cubas Sucesores Hermanos. pp. 5–7. OCLC 11968605.
  148. ^ Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores de México (1909), pp. 3–4.
  149. ^ a b "Mexicans Ask Indemnity; Attempt to Enforce Their Claim on Clipperton Island". The New York Times. Vol. XLVII, no. 15028. 11 March 1898. p. 5. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 6 April 2023.
  150. ^ a b c d Van Dyke, Jon; Brooks, Robert A. (Fall 1980). "Uninhabited Islands: Their Impact on Ownership of the Ocean's Resources". Sea Grant Quarterly. 2 (3): 19. Archived from the original on 6 April 2023. Retrieved 6 April 2023 – via Google Books.
  151. ^ a b Victor Emmanuel III (1932). "Arbitral award on the subject of the difference relative to the sovereignty over Clipperton Island" (PDF). The American Journal of International Law. 26 (2): 390–394. doi:10.2307/2189369. JSTOR 2189369. S2CID 246005364. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
  152. ^ Rogers (1933), pp. 278–279.
  153. ^ Kirchner, Stefan; Ulatowski, Laura (2023), "Clipperton Island", in Gray, Kevin W. (ed.), Global Encyclopedia of Territorial Rights, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 1–5, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-68846-6_733-1, ISBN 978-3-319-68846-6, retrieved 23 December 2023
  154. ^ Ongay Mendez, Alfredo Fernando (1945). El Arbitra de la Isla Clipperton Modos de Adquirir y Enajenar en Derecho International Publico (Thesis) (in Mexican Spanish). Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  155. ^ Arnaud, Gabriela (2015). Clipperton, Una Historia de Honor y Gloria (in Spanish). Mexico: Bubok Editorial. ISBN 978-84-686-8274-7.
  156. ^ Kunz, Marco; Mondragón, Cristina (2019). Nuevas narrativas Mexicanas 3 escrituras en transformación (in Spanish). Barcelona: Linkgua Ediciones. ISBN 978-84-9953-591-3. OCLC 1197904147.
  157. ^ a b "About Clipperton Island". ClippertonProject.com. The Clipperton Project. 2014. Archived from the original on 17 January 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  158. ^ Perrill, Charlotte (June 1937). "Forgotten Island". Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute. Vol. 63/6/412. Archived from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 4 April 2023. Four men of the crew of the Nokomis volunteered to man a boat and attempt the hazardous trip to Acapulco.
  159. ^ "Three Men Sail 500 Miles in Open Boat". South Bend News-Times. Vol. 31, no. 182. South Bend, Indiana. 24 June 1914. Archived from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 4 April 2023. As soon as their story had been told to Admiral Howard, the cruiser Cleveland was dispatched from Acapulco under full steam to Clipperton Island...
  160. ^ Bennett, Raine (10 January 1954). "The Madonna of Passion Isle". The American Weekly. New York, New York. pp. 12–13. Archived from the original on 28 April 2023. Retrieved 4 April 2023 – via Newspapers.com.
  161. ^ Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Fourré, Elise; Charlou, Jean-Luc; Donval, Jean-Pierre; Corrège, Thierry (2009). "Gaining insight into Clipperton's lagoon hydrology using tritium". Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 83 (1): 39–46. Bibcode:2009ECSS...83...39J. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2009.03.017. S2CID 42281088. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  162. ^ Restrepo, Laura (2014). La Isla de la Pasión. Alfaguara. ISBN 978-84-204-1831-5. OCLC 898062834. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  163. ^ "Trip report and photos: Clipperton Island – April 10–25, 2010". ElaineJobin.com. Elaine Jobin. Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  164. ^ "Navy Talk: The New Yorktown and Her Predecessors". Great Lakes Bulletin. Vol. 12, no. 45. Great Lakes, Illinois. 4 December 1937. p. 3. Retrieved 30 March 2023 – via Newspapers.com.
  165. ^ "Original treaty between Mexico and France" (PDF). Pastel.Diplomatie.gouv.fr (in French). French Foreign Ministry Archives. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
  166. ^ "Affaire de l'île de Clipperton (Mexique contre France)" (PDF). Recueil des Sentences Arbitrales (in French). Vol. II. United Nations (published 2006). 28 January 1931. pp. 1105–1111. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
  167. ^ Grant, John P.; Barker, Craig, eds. (2009). "Clipperton Island case". Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195389777.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-538977-7. Archived from the original on 14 December 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  168. ^ Heflin, William B. (2000). "Diayou / Senkaku islands dispute: Japan and China, Oceans Apart" (PDF). Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal. 1 (18): 11–13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  169. ^ Vargas, Jorge A. (11 August 2011). "Mexico's Islands: Mirage or Reality?". Mexico and the Law of the Sea: Contributions and Compromises. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill | Nijhoff. p. 410. doi:10.1163/ej.9789004206205.i-544.39. ISBN 978-90-04-20621-2. Archived from the original on 20 June 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  170. ^ González Avelar, Miguel (1992). Clipperton, isla mexicana (in Spanish) (1 ed.). México: Fondo de Cultura Económica. ISBN 968-16-3787-9. OCLC 29345009.
  171. ^ "President's Party Explores Perilous Clipperton Island". The Star Press. Vol. 65, no. 85. Muncie, Indiana. 22 July 1938. p. 1. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023 – via Newspapers.com.
  172. ^ a b c "Houston II (CA-30)". Naval History and Heritage Command. Archived from the original on 6 April 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  173. ^ "President and His Fishing Friends Land Five Sharks". The Belleville News-Democrat. Vol. 83, no. 202. Belleville, Illinois. 22 July 1938. p. 2. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023 – via Newspapers.com.
  174. ^ "Oceanographical Results from Central America". Nature. 144 (3647): 545. September 1939. Bibcode:1939Natur.144S.545.. doi:10.1038/144545c0. ISSN 0028-0836. S2CID 41695266.
  175. ^ "Scientists Study Island While President Fishes". The Baltimore Sun. Vol. 230-D. Baltimore, Maryland. 22 July 1938. p. 11. Retrieved 1 April 2023 – via Newspapers.com.
  176. ^ Schmitt, Waldo L. "Presidential Cruise of 1938 : diary" (July 21, 1938) . Smithsonian Field Books, pp. 12–14. College Park, Maryland: Smithsonian Institution.
  177. ^ "Roosevelt Heads for Clipperton Island, Where the Fishing Is Reported Excellent". The New York Times. Vol. LXXXIII, no. 27932. Associated Press. 18 July 1934. p. 32. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 14 June 2023 – via TimesMachine.
  178. ^ Grossnick, Roy (1987). Kite Balloons to Airships the Navy's Lighter-than-Air Experience (PDF). Naval Air Systems Command, United States. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. p. 33. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  179. ^ Grossnick, Roy; Armstrong, William (1997). United States Naval Aviation, 1910–1995 (4th ed.). Washington, D.C: US Naval History & Heritage Command. p. 87.
  180. ^ a b Slany, William; Reid, John; Sappington, N.O.; Houston, Douglas; Penkins, E. Ralph; Gleason, S. Everett, eds. (1968). "22". Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers, 1945, Europe (Report). Vol. 4. Office of the Historian, United States Department of State. p. 784. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  181. ^ Elliott, Thomas F. (2005). Clipperton: The island of lost toys and other treasures. Victoria, B.C.: Trafford Publishing. p. 90. ISBN 1-4120-7032-5. OCLC 70893221.
  182. ^ Cressman, Robert J. (14 February 2017). "Atlanta III (CL-51)". Naval History and Heritage Command. Archived from the original on 4 June 2023. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
  183. ^ Brown, Wilson. "Memorandum for the President" (December 4, 1944) . Franklin D. Roosevelt, Papers as President: Map Room Papers, 1941–1945, Series: Military Files, Box: 162, File: Naval Aide's Files A4-3 Air Base – Clipperton Island, p. 134. Poughkeepsie, New York: Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library & Museum, Marist College.
  184. ^ a b c Lowry, George (1962). "The Clipperton Operation". Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute. 88 (2/708). Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  185. ^ Converse, Elliott III (2005). Porter, George; Moore, Mary (eds.). Circling the Earth United States Plans for a Postwar Overseas Military Base System, 1942–1948 (PDF). Montgomery, Alabama: Air University Press. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  186. ^ a b c Thorne, Christopher (1978). Allies of a kind : the United States, Britain and the war against Japan, 1941–1945. London: Hamish Hamilton. pp. 77, 666–667. OCLC 759160860.
  187. ^ "Lonely Island Has a 'Jinx'". Herald Express. No. 9458. Torquay, Devon, England. 27 May 1954. p. 6. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023 – via Newspapers.com.
  188. ^ Diplomatic Papers (1946), pp. 785–787.
  189. ^ Fluckey (2004), p. 17.
  190. ^ Fluckey (2012), p. 16.
  191. ^ Taylor, Patrick Gordon (1948). Forgotten Island. Sydney, New South Wales, Australia: Shakespeare Head. Archived from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 3 April 2023.
  192. ^ Converse (2005), pp. 77–78.
  193. ^ Diplomatic Papers (1946), p. 783.
  194. ^ Thorne (1978), p. 262.
  195. ^ Conn, Stetson; Engelman, Rose; Fairchild, Byron (1962). Friedman, Joseph (ed.). Guarding The United States and Its Outposts (PDF). United States Army in World War II. Vol. Second. Washington, District of Columbia: Center for Military History, United States Army. p. 304. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  196. ^ Converse (2005), p. 107.
  197. ^ Diplomatic Papers (1946), p. 786–787.
  198. ^ Converse (2005), p. 81.
  199. ^ Sapp, Steven P. (1982). "Jefferson Caffery, Cold War Diplomat: American-French Relations 1944–49". Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association. 23 (2): 179–192. ISSN 0024-6816. JSTOR 4232169. Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  200. ^ Elsey, George. "Memorandum for Admiral Brown Clipperton Island" (27 February 1945) . Franklin D. Roosevelt, Papers as President: Map Room Papers, 1941–1945, Series: Military Files, Box: 162, File: Naval Aide's Files A4-3 Air Base – Clipperton Island, p. 11. Poughkeepsie, New York: Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library & Museum, Marist College.
  201. ^ Converse (2005), pp. 80–81.
  202. ^ Commission de publication des documents diplomatiques français (1998). Soutou, Georges-Henri; Galdemar, Michèle; Lefèvre, Sylvie; Wagnon-Charpy, Sylvain (eds.). Documents diplomatiques français : 1945 / Tome I, 1er janvier–30 juin (in French). Paris: Impr. nationale. pp. 55, 110. ISBN 2-11-089146-7. OCLC 490363689.
  203. ^ French Dipolomatic Documents (1998), p. 722.
  204. ^ a b Diplomatic Papers (1946), p. 789.
  205. ^ Converse (2005), p. 80.
  206. ^ Diplomatic Papers (1946), p. 788.
  207. ^ Diplomatic Papers (1946), p. 791.
  208. ^ Elsey (1945), p. 12.
  209. ^ Elsey (1945), p. 13.
  210. ^ Elsey (1945), pp. 13–15.
  211. ^ "XXe siècle | Clipperton – Projets d'Outre-Mer" (in French). Archived from the original on 28 January 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  212. ^ Diplomatic Papers (1946), p. 792.
  213. ^ Beakley, Wallace. "Visit of French Naval Officer to Clipperton Island" (23 February 1945) . Franklin D. Roosevelt, Papers as President: Map Room Papers, 1941–1945, Series: Military Files, Box: 162, File: Naval Aide's Files A4-3 Air Base – Clipperton Island, p. 21. Poughkeepsie, New York: Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library & Museum, Marist College.
  214. ^ Diplomatic Papers (1946), p. 794.
  215. ^ a b Appelo, Burton (25 July 2014). "Interview of Burton Appelo" (PDF). National Nordic Museum (Interview). Interviewed by Strand, Gordon; Benson, Brandon. Naselle, Washington. pp. 10–11. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  216. ^ Rogerson, Simon (19 July 2006). "Cousteau and the Pit". Dive Magazine. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2008.
  217. ^ McLellan, Dennis (16 September 2014). "Kenneth E. Stager dies at 94; curator of birds and mammals at L.A. County Natural History Museum". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. Archived from the original on 2 April 2023. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  218. ^ Townsend, Peggy (9 May 2014). "Averting Extinction". UC Santa Cruz News. Archived from the original on 5 February 2023. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  219. ^ Tchékémian, Anthony (15 April 2022). "Clipperton, seul territoire français dans l'océan Pacifique nord-oriental : quels enjeux environnementaux et géopolitiques ?" . Études caribéennes (in French) (51). doi:10.4000/etudescaribeennes.23485. ISSN 1779-0980. S2CID 248756261. Archived from the original on 31 May 2023. Retrieved 11 April 2023.
  220. ^ Barker, Garry, ed. (28 February 1986). "Yacht haven planned on Clipperton". Pacific Islands Monthly. Vol. 57, no. 3. Sydney, New South Wales, Australia: Pacific Publications. pp. 33–34.
  221. ^ Auger, Alain (1988). L'Interet Economique et Strategique pour la France de l'île Clipperton (PDF) (Report) (in French). Paris, France: Secrétariat Général de la Défense Nationale. pp. 80–83. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  222. ^ van Dyke, Jon M.; Morgan, Joseph R.; Gurish, Jonathan. "The Exclusive Economic Zone of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: When Do Uninhabited Islands Generate an EEZ?". p. 465. Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  223. ^ a b Schmidt, Karen (17 January 1997). "Remote Radar: JSC team goes to extreme ends to conduct science". Space News Roundup. Vol. 36, no. 3. Houston, Texas: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. p. 3. Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  224. ^ "N° 33–1996: Ariane 501 - Presentation of Inquiry Board report" (Press release). European Space Agency. 23 July 1996. Archived from the original on 27 March 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  225. ^ Clipperton, La France des Confins du Pacifique (PDF) (Breve marine No. 276) (in French). Centre d'Études Stratégiques de la Marine. 2023. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
  226. ^ "Deserted on a Coral Reef". The San Francisco Examiner. San Francisco, California. 2 August 1893. Archived from the original on 6 April 2023. Retrieved 30 March 2023 – via Newspapers.com.
  227. ^ "Clipperton Island The Viking to Rescue Guano Hunters". San Francisco Chronicle. Vol. LVIII, no. 28. San Francisco, California. 12 August 1893. p. 13. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 30 March 2023 – via Newspapers.com.
  228. ^ "Two Sailors Deserted on an Island". The Los Angeles Times. Vol. 24. Los Angeles, California. 31 October 1893. p. 2. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 30 March 2023 – via Newspapers.com.
  229. ^ The 'Kinkora' in an unidentified port (Photograph; 8.9 cm x 13.1 cm). Adelaide, South Australia: State Library of South Australia. 1890. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  230. ^ "Were Stranded on Clipperton". San Francisco Call. Vol. 82, no. 51. San Francisco, California. 21 July 1897. Archived from the original on 2 April 2023. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  231. ^ a b Cameron, Don, ed. (7 February 1898). "Strange Ocean Story, Remarkable Adventures of a Wrecked Crew". Coolgardie Miner. Vol. 4, no. 914. Coolgardie, Western Australia. Archived from the original on 3 April 2023. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  232. ^ "5 Fishermen, Lost May 19 Found on Pacific Island". The Salt Lake Tribune. Vol. 155, no. 77. Salt Lake CIty, Utah. 30 June 1947. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023 – via Newspapers.com.
  233. ^ Gius, Julius, ed. (27 February 1962). "Lost Ship's Crew Sighted Safe on Isle". Ventura County Star. Ventura, California. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 30 March 2023 – via Newspapers.com.
  234. ^ "Robison". Naval History and Heritage Command. 19 October 2005. Archived from the original on 28 April 2023. Retrieved 28 April 2023.
  235. ^ Wendland, Mike (14 January 1979). "Visit to unfriendly Pacific atoll was big ham news". San Bernardino Sun. San Bernardino. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 24 March 2023.
  236. ^ Donham, Perry (1985). "DX Dream". 73. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  237. ^ "Bloc Notes De La Radioamateurs". Megahertz Magazine. France. 1991. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  238. ^ Bill Salyers (27 August 2023). "Episode 17 – Clipperton Island". The DX Mentor (Podcast). Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  239. ^ a b Duchauchoy, Alain (2007). "Clipperton ou île de la Passion". Megahertz Magazine. France. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  240. ^ "Clipperton Island". TX5K.org. 2013 Cordell Expedition. Archived from the original on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  241. ^ Schmieder, Robert W. (15 June 2013). "Report of the Expedition Leader" (PDF). Cordell.org. The 2013 Cordell Expedition to Clipperton Island. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  242. ^ "TX5P – Clipperton Island – Passion 2015 – News". dxnews.com. 18 April 2015. Archived from the original on 15 August 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.

External links

Clipperton Island at Wikipedia's sister projects

Photo galleries

Visits and expeditions